Surfers Paradise, Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia

Surfers Paradise, Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia

The Gold Coast is throbbing stretch of sandy beaches and curling surf for those who love the sun, sand, sea and their fellow creatures. The strip abounds in hotels, restaurants and entertainments, among which are the Mudgeeraba boomerang factory; the Curumbin bird sanctuary where at a signal flocks of lor i keets flutter in to perch on your head and arms; Marineland and its singing dolphins; the comical penguins of Broadwater; Fleay’s Fauna Reserve at Burleigh Heads; and the Auto Museum at Kirra. At Surfers Paradise, daily water skiing shows, speed boat rides, floor shows and bowling rinks. Some prefer the quieter beaches North of Brisbane.

Varying from 20 miles to 150 miles off the coast is the Great Barrier Reef, largest coral reef in the world – 120 miles long; in many ways a perfect holiday land, especially in winter. Quiet green islands, brilliant coral, tropical fish, thousands of coves and beaches; transport and accommodations in plenty. Dedicated skin divers should not miss it, neither should collectors of exotic sea shells.

The islands of the Whitsunday group are very beautiful: Brampton, Hayman, Lindeman, South Molle – reached from Mackay. However, the others to North and South have their advantages – in particular Green Island, with its underwater observatory, and Dunk Island, both reached from Cairns. Most economical way to see the reef is by taking one of the package tours offered by several Australian companies.

Why some Polynesians speak of their homeland as Hawaiki?

Why some Polynesians speak of their homeland as Hawaiki?

The precise routes taken by the fearless explorers are not known. The migrations were many and were spread over centuries of time. Also the small companies of adventurers and scouts and the larger companies of immigrants came by different routes. The route through Java to the Fiji Islands and eastward is marked by stranded remnants of Polynesians at Futuna (Erronan) in the New Hebrides, at Rennel in the Solomons, and at the Ontong Java (Lord Howe Islands).

The Polynesian settlement at Nukuor in the Caroline Islands may mark a northern route by which immigrants came through the Marshall Islands, Gilbert Islands, and Ellice Islands to Samoa and perhaps to Hawaii. It is possible that some adventurous companies came by a yet more northern route through the Marianas Islands or the Carolines directly to Hawaii. After immigrants had become established in such places as Samoa and Tahiti, these centers probably were used as bases for exploration of islands in their vicinity.

When the Polynesians came

Some Polynesians speak of their former homeland as “Hawaiki,” a faintly remembered faraway region from which many choice things came and to which the souls of men returned after death. The first emigrations from this homeland took place so long ago that the record is lost. But at the beginning of the Christian era colonists were in the Pacific, and it is known that during the eighth and ninth centuries eighty-five islands and island groups had been discovered islands lying far apart on both sides of the equator.

The Maoris of New Zealand trace their descent from immigrants who reached the islands about the year 1400. But these immigrants had learned about the country from earlier voyagers and came with their wives and children, carrying with them the sweet potato and taro, their household idols, medicinal plants, and domestic animals. They found New Zealand occupied by people of their own race, who had come from different places, and learned that the Chatham Islands lying eastward across 500 miles of stormy sea had been settled.

As early as the thirteenth century the geography of the Pacific was fairly well known. The colonists were familiar with the mountains, volcanoes, rivers, reefs, and forests and knew the regions of large rainfall and small rainfall and the direction of winds and currents. All this was before Columbus had discovered America, or Balboa the Pacific; before Magellan had crossed the Pacific to the Philippines.

Pioneer navigators

Long before European navigators had ventured far from land, Polynesians were sailing back and forth among the dots of land in the broad Pacific, making voyages thousands of miles in length. The Polynesian outposts in the Carolines and at Easter Island are nearly 9,000 miles apart and 3,800 miles of water lie between Hawaii and New Zealand.

The route from Tahiti to New Zealand, used many times by Polynesian boats, is 2,200 miles in length. Yet these widely separated lands and intervening islands were not only known but were settled and served as distributing points for the shoots and seeds of such food plants as the banana, coconut, yam, breadfruit, and taro. Even the west coast of America may have been visited by adventurous navigators.

Long voyages

The facts about some of these voyages are known. Four early trips from Hawaii to Tahiti, 2,400 miles, are recorded. Uenga, a twelfth-century sea rover, sailed from Samoa to Tongareva, thence to Tubuai, and through the Tuamotus to Tahiti. The entire journey covered about 4,000 miles, most of it against the trade winds. Tukuiho, sailing from Rapa, discovered Rapa-nui ( Easter Island) after a voyage of 2,500 miles with no intervening stopping places. Karika, a Samoan chief, discovered and colonized Rarotonga, and the thirteen voyages of Tangiia cover a distance of more than 18,000 miles.

No compass used

The Polynesians readily made their way across the ocean without the aid of a compass or a log book. During the daytime they guided themselves by the sun, by the flight of birds, and the shape and color of clouds, and in stormy weather by the trend of the waves driven before the prevailing winds. A man with a knowledge of clouds and rainbows and winds ranked high in the esteem of the people. Some of the Pacific peoples made crude charts on which the trends of the wave crests in the trade wind belts were indicated by parallel sticks stretched on a frame, and the number and position of the islands included on the chart were shown by little pieces of stone or coral placed in proper position.

Some Australian and World Cultural, Political, Touristic, Press Organizations Abbreviations

Some Australian and World Cultural, Political, Touristic, Press Organizations Abbreviations

AAP Australian Associated Press
AP Associated Press
ABC Australian Broadcasting Commission
ACCL Australian Council for Civil Liberties
ACP Australian Communist Party
AlCD Association for International Co-operation and Disarmament
AJA Australian Journalists’ Association
ALP Australian Labor Party
AP Associated Press
APC Australian Peace Council
ASIO Australian Security Intelligence Organisation
AWU Australian Workers Union
BBC British Broadcasting Commission
BPC Burchett Passport Committee
BP SLV Burchett Papers – State Library of Victoria
CDNl Committee for the Defence of the National Interest
CIA Central Intelligence Agency
C1ADL Commission of the lnternatiorvl Association of Democratic Lawyers
C1CD Congress for International Co-operation and Disarmament
CIS Commonwealth Investigation Service
CPA Communist Party of Australia
CPD Commonwealth Parliamentary Debates
DLP Democratic Labour Party
DPP Director of Public Prosecutions
DRC Democratic Rights Council
DRVN Democratic Republic of North Vietnam
FCO Foreign & Colonial Office (British)
FEC Far Eastern Command
FNLA Angolan National Liberation Front
FO Foreign Office (British)
FREMLINO Front for the Liberation of Mozambique (FREMLINO)
HMAS Her Majesty’s Australian Ship
INS International News Service
ICC International Control Commission
1CRC International Committee of the Red Cross
IRC International Red Cross
ISC International Scientific Commission
IWM Imperial War Museum
MAWF Movement Against War and Fascism
MHR Member of the House of Representatives
ML Mitchell Library
MPLA Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola
NAA National Archives of Australia
NARA National American Records & Archives
NCCL National Council for Civil Liberties
NLF National Liberation Front
NNRC Neutral Nations Repatriation Commission
NSC National Security Council
NUJ National Union of Journalists
OAU Organisation of African Unity
POL Palestine Orient & Lloyd Line
QC Queen’s Counsel
RAA.F Royal Australian Air Force
RAN Royal Australian Navy
RSL Returned Soldiers League
SEATO South East Asian Treaty Organisation
SLV State Library of Victoria
SS Schulzstaffel
UAP United Australia Party
UDNA Union of People in Northern Angola
UN United Nations
UNA United Nations Association
UNC United Nations Command
UNCURK United Nations Commission for the Unification & Rehabilitation of Korea
UNESCO United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation
UNITA National Union for the Total Independence of Angola
UP United Press
UPA Union of the Peoples of Angola
US United States
VPA Vietnam Peoples’ Army
VPC Victorian Peace Council
VVPC World Peace Council
ZANU Zimbabwean African National Union
ZAPU Zimbabwean African People’s Union