Uruguay is well worth discovering

Uruguay is well worth discovering

As South America’s smallest Spanish-speaking country, Uruguay is often overlooked by tourists visiting the region. However, with its vibrant nightlife and stunning coastline Uruguay is well worth discovering. Due to its strategic position on the north shore of the Río de la Plata, Uruguay’s territory was hotly contested from the first European settlements, initially by Spain and Portugal, then by the emerging regional powers of Argentina and Brazil.

A delightfully low-key, hospitable place, modern Uruguay enjoys a high standard of living but draws fewer tourists than neighbouring Brazil and Argentina. Visitors here can melt into the background and experience the everyday life of a different culture – whether riding horses under the big sky of Uruguay’s sparsely populated interior or strolling with throngs of mate-drinking locals along Montevideo’s 15km-long (9 miles) beachfront.

The three most popular destinations are the culturally vibrant capital Montevideo, the picturesque 17th-century port of Colonia, and the trendy coastal resort Punta del Este, which lures jetsetters from around the globe to its sandy beaches, fine restaurants and party-till-you-drop nightclubs. Visitors with more time should explore the dunes and lagoons of Uruguay’s long Atlantic coastline, soak in the hot springs near Salto, or spend the night at a tourist estancia amidst the wide-open grandeur of gaucho country.

Uruguay is well worth discovering

All About Uruguay

Uruguay, officially the Eastern Republic of Uruguay (Spanish: República Oriental del Uruguay), is a country in the southeastern region of South America. It is bordered by Argentina to its west and Brazil to its north and east, with the “Río de la Plata” (River of Silver) to the south and with the Atlantic Ocean to the southeast. Uruguay is home to 3.3 million people, of whom 1.8 million live in the metropolitan area of its capital and largest city, Montevideo. With an area of approximately 176,000 square kilometres (68,000 sq mi), Uruguay is geographically the second-smallest nation in South America after Suriname.

Uruguay was inhabited by the Charrúa people for approximately 4000 years before the Portuguese established Colonia del Sacramento, one of the oldest European settlements in the country, in 1680. Montevideo was founded as a military stronghold by the Spanish in the early 18th century, signifying the competing claims over the region. Uruguay won its independence between 1811 and 1828, following a four-way struggle between Spain, Portugal, Argentina and Brazil. It remained subject to foreign influence and intervention throughout the 19th century, with the military playing a recurring role in domestic politics until the late 20th century. Modern Uruguay is a democratic constitutional republic, with a president who serves as both head of state and head of government.

Uruguay is ranked first in Latin America in democracy, peace, lack of corruption, e-government, and is first in South America when it comes to press freedom, size of the middle class and prosperity. On a per-capita basis, Uruguay contributes more troops to United Nations peace-keeping missions than any other country. It ranks second in the region on economic freedom, income equality, per-capita income and inflows of FDI.

Uruguay is the third-best country on the continent in terms of HDI, GDP growth, innovation and infrastructure. It is regarded as a high-income country (top group) by the UN. Uruguay is also the third-best ranked in the world in e-Participation. Uruguay is an important global exporter of combed wool, rice, soybeans, frozen beef, malt and milk.

The Economist named Uruguay “country of the year” in 2013 acknowledging the innovative policy of legalizing the production, sale and consumption of cannabis. Same-sex marriage and abortion are also legal, leading Uruguay to be regarded as one of the most liberal nations in the world, and one of the most socially developed, outstanding regionally and ranking highly on global measures of personal rights, tolerance and inclusion issues.

Flying into Macau

Flying into Macau

Flying into Macau these days and arriving in its brand-new airport, you see at a glance how small it is: a low, rocky peninsula connected to China by a sandspit three hundred yards wide, and two even smaller islands, Taipa and Coloane, which are linked by a bridge and a causeway.

Macau’s whole area comes to less than seven square miles, one quarter the size of Manhattan. it has no natural resources and no agriculture, apart from some quiet public gardens and lovingly tended flowerpots. Of its half a million people, fifteen thousand are Portuguese, ten thousand are “other,” and the rest, thronging the busy streets, savoring the breezes off the South China Sea, chattering into portable phones, and very occasionally creating small traffic jams, are Chinese.

Collectively, however, they all call themselves Macanese and live together in obvious harmony. The road signs and shop windows are in Portuguese and Chinese, but everyone-or at least everyone employed in gambling, tourism, or religion, Macau’s essential industries-speaks English.

Flying into Macau

From the air, Macau is a small, slow, inviting place. The approach I like better is from the sea, best of all toward dusk, in foggy weather (the ferries and hydrofoils from Hong Kong all carry radar, and often need it). The estuary of the Pearl River, forty miles wide, looks as vast and empty as the open ocean, with the next landfall at Saigon or Singapore.

Suddenly the engines slow, a row of buoys slides alongside, and through the mist looms a bump of land crowned by the fortress and hermitage of Our Lady of Guia, a pair of ancient cannons, and the winking lantern of the first lighthouse ever built on the China coast-a very Portuguese mix of faith, antique firepower, and maritime know-how.

So, too, is the way Macau clings to the outermost edge of China, as Portugal itself does to the far end of Europe, with nowhere to go but to sea. A loose grip on the wheel, you feel, and you might miss Macau altogether. Yet at this hour, when night veils the casinos, the horse- and dog-racing tracks, the bank towers, and the other schemes Macau has had to adopt to stay afloat, the fort and the church beside it remind us what a mighty monument to human perseverance this brave little out-post has been-and still is.

Stockholm: Sophisticated City in Europe

Stockholm: Sophisticated City in Europe

Stockholm, very simply stated, is like no other city you have ever seen. At times, it resembles a Camelot, all surrounded by forests and laced with spires and turrets, very stately in its aspect, and seemingly as conservative as the John Birch Society. To think that this is the birthplace of cradle-to-grave security, and of experimental marriage, is a shock that often takes a few hours to overcome.

Physically, the city is one of the loveliest of capitals. It spreads over 14 separate islands, each connected by vaulting bridges, under which the waters of Lake Malaren-which flow into the Baltic Sea -are often covered with sailboats, cruising deep into the city. Same of the islands rise on steep diffs from the water, and on these diffs, high above, are the stern, dignified buildings of Sweden, untouched by the ravages of war for nearly two hundred years. Best yet, the city is surrounded by woodlands and farms, never more than 10 minutes away from any point in town.

Viewed from another aspect, the city is one of the most sophisticated in Europe, not only in the attainments of its art and culture, but in the social relationships of its citizens. There is no public graft in Sweden, no discernible poverty. If you’ll probe deep enough, you’ll be constantly surprised by the projects and ideas erupting about you: the futuristic suburbs, all built within the past ten years;the ingenious efforts to make life pleasant and full, within a framework of democracy. It may be a minor example, but it’s typical of Sweden, that every school child under 14 is given a free ticket on the Swedish Railways to make a yearly summer vacation trip to any point in Sweden.

For the tourist, there’s an endless variety of sights and activities: the unique open air “museums,” the Archipelago of Stockholm, the brilliant Royal Dramatic Theatre, the Milles Sculptures, the jazz dance hall called “Nalen,” the Katarina Elevator. When Hope and I finally had to depart his city, we felt that we were being dragged away.

Stockholm: Sophisticated City in Europe

Here, now, is how I’d organize a first visit:

ORIENTATION: The very first thing to do upon arriving in Stockholm is to go to the hotel accommodations bureau (“Hotellcentralen“) in the Central Station and obtain a room (details appear in our section on hotels, below). Then, after depositing your bags, the very next thing to do is to take the subway (“tunnelbana“) to the “Slussen” stop, where you’ll find the great Katarina Elevator, which rises in an open lift to the roof of a tall building, from which you can see all the way to the Baltic and to the beginning of the Stockholm Archipelago. The city is spread out below you: the boats that go to Finland are on your left, the ships to nearby Russia are directly ahead.

From this vantage point, youıı first begin to understand the arrangement of the 14 islands that make up the city of Stockholm. But only five of them need concern you: Norrmalm, Södermalm, -Gamla Stan, Kungsholmen and Djurgarden (the Deer Park).The big northern island, which contains the shopping areas, the office buildings, and almost all the hotels we’ll recommend, is the Norrmalm. The major squares in the Norrmalm are the Norrmalmstorg, the Stureplan, and the Gustav Adolfs Torg (where the Opera is located).

Directly below the Norrmalm, and almost touching upon it, is the tiny island of Gamla Stan-the Old City-where the Royal Palace stands, and where the streets are narrow, twisting, and incredibly picturesque. Although there are some cheap hotels here, they’ re all in centuries-old and somewhat-damp-feeling buildings, and we’ve recommended none of them. The Gamla Stan does have some of the best restaurants of Stockholm, together with several bustling shopping streets, so narrow that cars are excluded. It can’t be missed.

Directly below the Gamla Stan is Södermalm-the Brooklyn of Stockholm-where the residents speak with a special argot all their own, and are fiercely proud of their island. This is almost entirely a residential area, and virtually no tourists-including us-go there.It’s at the top of the Södermalm, however, at the point where the island nearly touches upon the Gamla Stan, that the Katarina Elevator stands.

To the left of the Gamla Stan is the Kungsholmen, site of the major government buildings of this capital of Sweden, including the Town Hall of Stockholm. Except for the Town Hall-which you definitely should visit-there’s little to attract you to Kungsholmen. But to the right of the Gamla Stan (after first skipping over an even tinier island-the Skeppsholmen-a naval base), you’ll find the magnificent Djurgarden (“Deer Park”), pronounced yoor-gohr-dun, a breathtaking, wooded fairyland, on whose lands the royalty of Sweden once rode to the hounds and let graze their pet deer, and which even today is maintained solely as a park, with no residential or business buildings on it. It’s to Djurgarden that the people of Stockholm go for their summer recreation-to the fascinating open air museum and park of Skansen, to the carnival grounds of the Tivoli Gröna Lund, and to the various dance halls scattered near both spots.

Sidewalk Cafe Sitting in Amsterdam

Sidewalk Cafe Sitting in Amsterdam

This next evening activity (which can also be practiced during the day) is a major occupation in Amsterdam—and a cheap and pleasant one, too. No sidewalk cafe will ever require that you take more than a single cup of coffee, over which you’re then permitted to linger the entire evening as you watch the passing parade in Amsterdam’s two major entertainment squares: the Rembrandtsplein and the Leidseplein.

Of the two, the Rembrandtsplein possesses a bit more activity, and here the cafes, with their sidewalk table areas, are lined almost solidly along two sides of the square. On the Leidseplein, the major outdoor cafes are those operated by the American Hotel and the Cafe Moderne, but the three most exciting ones are the Hoopman Bodega, the Cafe Reynders, and the Cafe Eylders, all three on the Korte Leidsedwarsstraat, just off the Leidseplein, alongside (but across another small square from) the Opera. Of these, the Cafe Reynders is the outstanding student cafe of Amsterdam, heavily patronized by Amsterdam’s version of the beatnik, along with their surprisingly pretty, pony-tailed companions.

Obviously, there’s no minimum, no cover charge, for which you can sit and meet people all evening. The Cafe Eylders is a slightly more polished version of the Reynders, and the Hoopman Bodega is a somewhat more elegant bar, patronized by some fairly elegant older people. During the winter, all three establishments continue full blast, but without the sidewalk tables.

New Zealand: Land of The Lord of the Rings

New Zealand: Land of The Lord of the Rings

New Zealand is a country in the Southern Hemisphere in the Oceania region, which is called Aotearoa in Māori, which translates as the Land of the Long White Cloud, It is a country of rare seismic beauty enriched with glacial mountains, fast-flowing rivers, deep, clear lakes, hissing geysers and boiling mud. New Zealand is notable for its geographic isolation, being separated from Australia to the northwest by the Tasman Sea, some 2,000 kilometres (1,250 miles) across. Its closest neighbours to the north are New Caledonia, Fiji and Tonga.

The capital city of New Zealand is Wellington. It has got its independence on 26 September 1907 from UK. The Maori, from eastern Polynesia, first settled New Zealand sometime after 800AD. Abel Tasman, a Dutch mariner, discovered New Zealand for Europeans in 1642. He was followed by Captain James Cook of the British Navy in 1769, and later by seal-traders, loggers, whalers and Christian missionaries.

The government type is parliamentary democracy where Elizabeth II is the Queen of New Zealand and is represented by a non-partisan Governor-General; the Queen ‘reigns but does not rule’, so she has no real political influence. Political power is held by the Prime Minister, who is leader of the Government. The Realm of New Zealand also includes the Cook Islands and Niue, which are entirely self-governing, Tokelau, and the Ross Dependency (New Zealand’s territorial claim in Antarctica).

For the administration of environmental and transport matters New Zealand has 12 regional councils and 74 territorial authorities to administer roading, sewerage, building consents, and other local matters. The territorial authorities are 16 city councils, 57 district councils, and the Chatham Islands County Council.

New Zealand: Land of The Lord of the Rings

New Zealand has a population of about 4.1 million. About 70% of the population are of European descent. New Zealand-born Europeans are collectively known as Pākeha – this term is used variously and some Māori use it to refer to all non-Māori New Zealanders.

Christianity is the predominant religion in New Zealand, although nearly 40% of the population has no religious affiliation. The main Christian denominations are Anglicanism, Roman Catholicism, Presbyterianism and Methodism. According to census figures there are Anglican 24%, Presbyterian 18%, Roman Catholic 15%, Methodist 5%, Baptist 2%, other Protestant 3%, unspecified or none 33% of the overall population.

New Zealand comprises two main islands, the North and South Islands, and a number of smaller islands. The total land area of New Zealand is 268,680 square kilometres (103,738 sq mi) which is a little less than that of Italy and Japan, and a little more than the United Kingdom. The country has approximatly 15,134 km of coastline. The most significant of the smaller inhabited islands of New Zealand include Stewart Island/Rakiura; Waiheke Island, in Auckland’s Hauraki Gulf; Great Barrier Island, east of the Hauraki Gulf; and the Chatham Islands, named Rekohu by Moriori.

The South Island is the largest land mass in New Zealand, and is divided along its length by the Southern Alps, the highest peak of which is Aoraki(Mount Cook), 3,754 metres (12,316 ft). There are 18 peaks of more than 3,000 metres (9,800 ft) in the South Island. The North Island is less mountainous than the South, but is marked by volcanism. The tallest North Island mountain, Mount Ruapehu (2,797 m / 9,176 ft), is an active cone volcano. The dramatic and varied landscape of New Zealand has made it a popular location for the production of television programmes and films, including the Lord of the Rings trilogy.

The country has extensive marine resources, with the fifth-largest Exclusive Economic Zone in the world, covering over four million square kilometres (1.5 million sq mi), more than 15 times its land area. There are also abundant native forests, long, deserted beaches and a variety of fauna, such as the kiwi, endemic to its shores.

The climate throughout the country is mild, with temperatures rarely falling below 0°C (32°F) or rising above 30°C (86°F). On the West Coast of the South Island to dry and continental in the Mackenzie Basin of inland Canterbury and subtropical in Northland conditions vary from wet and cold. Christchurch is the driest is the driest of the main cities, receiving only some 640 mm (25 in) of rain per year. Auckland, the wettest, receives a little less than three times that amount.

Until the arrival of humans, other than three species of bat(one now extinct) there were no non-marine mammals. New Zealand’s forests were inhabited by a diverse range of birds including the flightless moa (now extinct), and the kiwi, kakapo, and takahē, all endangered due to human actions. Unique birds capable of flight include the Haast’s eagle, which was the world’s largest bird of prey (now extinct), and the large kākā and kea parrots. Reptiles present in New Zealand include skinks, geckos and tuatara. There are four endemic species of New Zealand primitive frogs. There are no snakes but there are many species of insects, including the weta, one species of which may grow as large as a house mouse and is the heaviest insect in the world.

Mediterranean Sea: The heart of the Old World

Mediterranean Sea: The heart of the Old World

The Mediterranean Sea was the heart of the Old World; the important lands of the early history of civilization were grouped about its richly indented shores, generally decreasing in respect of culture as they receded from it. The northeastern part of the Mediterranean, because of its many islands, having an even greater proportionate coast-line, was the centre of the countries ennobled by Hellenic civilization.

Separating and uniting at once, like all the waters of the earth, the Aegean Sea formed the boundary between the two chief races of Greek intellectual life–the Dorians and the Ionians; while it was, at the same time, the favoring medium of exchange for the productions of their genius. European Greece, with its predominating Doric population, and the almost exclusively Ionic coasts of Asia Minor, equally looked upon this sea as their own, traversing it with thousands of ships, and gaining more from the trackless waters before them than from the interior lands of the immense continents whose seaboard alone they were content to occupy.

In Asia the Greeks were restricted to the countries upon its uttermost western border; in European Greece the development was chiefly directed towards the eastern coast, paying even less attention to their own shores on the Adriatic than to the early colonized ports of Magna – Graecia and Sicily. The Archipelago itself provided convenient strongholds and outposts in every direction. The numerous harbors and anchoring – places of its many islands offered protection against the notorious treachery of the Aegean main–a protection imperatively necessary for the primitive seafarers of antiquity. But, as in the history of all civilization, the currents of Greek intellectual and artistic progress moved distinctly from east to west.

The European (Doric) culture was in itself less calculated to influence Asia than the Asiatic (Ionic) to affect the younger continent. It was, as decided by nature, upon European soil, upon Attica–the most advanced promontory of European Greece–that the two branches of the Greek race united, and bore in Athens that double fruit at which we marvel. The Dorians, displaced, in some measure, by the rapid growth of Ionic Asia and Europe, turned still farther westward, and settled upon the shores of Sicily and the Gulf of Tarention, where imposing monuments still attest the extent of their power.

The legends of the wanderings of Hellenic tribes, and especially of the so-called Doric migration, were based upon the busy currents of intercourse between Asia and Europe, over seas and straits, and between the European continent and the Morea, the Island of Pelops. The relations and the quarrels of Hellenic and semi-barbaric peoples upon each side of the Aegean are illustrated by the tales of the Argonauts and their voyage, and of the Trojan War, both of which bear the stamp of a certain piratical rivalry.

The fatal lack of unity, resulting from the separate development of neighboring districts, could not be more distinctly characterized than by the fact that the Greek races, although they felt themselves divided from other nations — from barbarians — by an impassable gulf, and were aware of their own absolute intellectual superiority, yet lacked any comprehensive designation for themselves: the name Greeks, or Hellenes, is of comparatively recent origin.

Turkey: Foca Population, Temperature, Sightseeing Tours and Excursion

Turkey: Foca Population, Temperature, Sightseeing Tours and Excursion

Foça (from Greek: Φώκαια, “Phocaea”) is a town and district in Turkey’s İzmir Province, on the Aegean coast. The town of Foça is situated at about 69 km (43 mi) northwest of İzmir’s city center. The district also has a township with its own municipality named Yenifoça (literally “New Foça”), also along the shore and at a distance of 20 km (12 mi) from Foça proper. For this reason, Foça itself is locally often called as Eskifoça (“Old Foça”) in daily parlance. The ancient city of Phocaea (Greek: Φώκαια) is located between the two modern Foças.

Additionally, Yenifoça, taken over by the Genoese in 1275 as a fief from the Byzantine emperor, was the more active of the two Foças during the Middle Ages, principally due to the region’s rich alum reserves (the alum mines of Foça were conceded earlier by the Byzantines, in 1267, to the Genoese brothers Benedetto and Manuele Zaccaria); the Genoese lease over them having been preserved well into the Ottoman era

Another important Byzantine concession to the Genoese through dowry was the nearby island of Lesbos (to the Gattilusio family, as a result of the marriage between Francesco I Gattilusio and Maria Palaiologina, sister of Byzantine emperor John V Palaiologos) in 1355. The possessions of the Gattilusio family eventually grew to include, among others, the islands of Imbros, Samothrace, Lemnos and Thasos, and the city of Aenos (modern Enez in Turkey.)[4] From this position, they were heavily involved in the mining and marketing of alum, useful in textile production and a profitable trade controlled by the Genoese.

Eski Foça stretches along two bays; a larger one named Büyükdeniz (“Greater Sea”) and a smaller cove within that large one, named Küçükdeniz (“Smaller Sea”), where the medieval castle is also located.

Many parts of the district are under strict environmental protection, due to the value of the flora and the fauna, and the beauty of the small bays and coves, especially between Foça and Yenifoça. Therefore, a judicious way to get to know the district would be by boat tours regularly organized in partance from the town center. Because of the protective measures, new constructions are not permitted in many parts of the district and Foça is set to preserve its unique characteristic as composed principally of old houses.

Population: 12.000

Altitude: Sea Level

Airport: Adnan Menderes Airport 85 Km

Transfer: Bus, mini bus

Average temperature in centigrade: Jan 15; Feb 16; Mar 20; Apr 23; May 28; Jun 31;Ju133; Aug 33; Sep 30; Oct 26; Nov 20; Dec 18.

City transport: Taxi and mini bus

Sights and local attractions: Tasev, Beskapilar Castle, Amphitheatre, Rocks, Fatih Mosque and Siren Rocks

Sightseeing Tours and Excursion:

1. Bergama (85 km.)

2. Ephesus (144 km.)

3. Ayvalik (190 km.)

Macau: What brought faraway Portugal to this unlikely spot

Macau: What brought faraway Portugal to this unlikely spot

What brought faraway Portugal to this unlikely spot? Over a bottle of Dao (excellent Portuguese wine, six dollars a bottle), I put this question to an old and famous friend, Monsignor Manuel Teixeira, the white-robed historian of the Jesuit order’s heroic bid to convert China and Japan to Christianity. “A Fe, o Imperio,” Father Teixeira replied, quoting the opening of Portugal’s national epic poem of discovery, Os Lusiadas. “For faith and empire,” he translated. “You’ll notice that our poet has put the faith first. He shared our priorities.”

Luis de Camoes (pronounced KaMOYNSH), a writer whose exploits make Hemingway and Mailer sound like the Bronte sisters, took a personal part in Portugal’s great adventure. Jilted by a highborn Lisbon lady, then having lost an eye in battle against the Saracens, the poet wounded a court official in a brawl and was banished to Goa, in India, and advised not to hurry back. In 1556, he landed the job of Trustee for the Dead and Absent in Macau, where only two years earlier Portugal had been allowed to set up a temporary trading post on an outlying Chinese island.

Some money left by the dead, which had mysteriously disappeared, led to De Camoes being sent back to Goa in chains. Shipwrecked on the coast of Vietnam, he waded ashore with his manuscript held high above his head. When he finally made it back to Lisbon, he published his epic and was eventually buried beside his hero, Admiral Vasco da Gama. (Both are remembered by bronze statues in tranquil gardens in Macau. Personally, I prefer the whiskery one-eyed poet’s.)

What a story he had for his rhyme! Only six years after Columbus sailed the ocean blue, hoping-but failing-to find the sea route to India, the Portuguese, led by Da Gama, got there via the Cape of Good Hope. By 1503 Da Gama was back in Lisbon with thirteen galleons loaded with fabulous Eastern merchandise, rather like Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin returning from the moon with a party of bug-eyed monsters and enough gold to pay off the national debt. King Manuel I gave the order to push on east, and fast. In 1510, Afonso de Albuquerque was named to succeed the Viceroy of India (where, in fact, the Portuguese had haggled in a few bazaars), and the following year he captured Malacea, near the modern Singapore.

Bristling with bronze cannons, a chain of brave little forts secured lines of communication all the way back to distant Portugal (we Sayles named our daughter Malindi after one of them still standing guard on the Kenya east). In 1513, Captain Jorge Alvares was the first European to sail into the Pearl River, the sea approach to Guangzhou (formerly Canton), already one of the East’s great trading cities. By 1543 the Portuguese were in Japan, where they found the people courteous and eager to buy not port wine, olive oil, Catholic holy pictures, and salted codfish (then as now tiny Portugal’s fastest-moving exports), but, rather, the very same costly Chinese silk and ceramics that all of Europe lusted after. Relations between Japan and China were, as usual, cool, and Chinese products were unobtainable by direct trade.

Resort Hotel Camyuva – Rejuvenate yourself at Water Paradise

Resort Hotel Camyuva

For seasons of active holiday

The new worldwide nterpretation of holiday.

Has come to mean “Four Seasons Active Holiday”… The aim is rejuvenate through recreation and relaxation

Rejuvenate yourself at Water Paradise…

Rooms: 133 rooms, furnished with Balcony, airconditioning, telephone, TV. satellite, music and video broadcasts, room bar, bathtub, hair dryer.

F&B: Feuillages (Main Restaurant), Ottoman Cuisine. Bar Barbarossa, Midnight Barbecue, Aqua Bistro, Bar, Cafe Aqua, Vitamin Point.

Sportive Activities: Water sports, Tennis, Mini-soccer, Volleyball, Basketball, Jogging.

Health & Fitness Center: Sauna & shock pool, Steinbad, Fitness center. .

Bunny Club for the children: Play pool. Play garden.

Disco: Bubbles Dance.

Lounges: Winter Garden (greenhouse. library, reading section) Game lounge, Upper lounge (fireplace, piano, live music, aquarium).

Meeting Services Business Point: Multi-purpose meeting room (60 people), Special meeting rooms (8 and 18 people), VIP offices, relaxation rooms . Aqua Plaza (Shopping): Sportique (Sports boutique), Rainbow Mini Market, Photo Graphis. Tulipano (Jeweller), Buffalo (leather boutique), Hair Studio, Rent A Car, Ladik (Carpet shop).

The water paradise at the Aqua Resort with it’s interesting architecture in PopArt, integrated well in the nature is equipped with more than 10 water recreation systems… Ranging from tumbling wild rivers and sweeping water stream channels to different versions of water slides… Bubbling in the “Whirpool” cooling in the shock pool. Smiling in the children’s mini pool… And massage beds to relax your tired muscles.

The Water Paradise continues on the tropical garden with the tropical pool in the middle.. The internal and external pools and recreation systems are heated during winter… Everything has been specially designed for you to have four seasons of active holiday in a unique and relaxed atmosphere.

Resort Hotel Camyuva – Kemer, 07980 Antalya – Turkey

Head Office: Bestekar Sak. 64/5 Kavaklidere, 06680 Ankara – Turkey

Brief History of Illinois and Railroads

Brief History of Illinois and Railroads

Illinois entered the transition stage during which Chicago developed from a mud-rutted town of 29,963 in 1850 to a city of 296,977 in 1870, probably the swiftest growth of a metropolis in history. The State boasted ten incorporated cities in 1850: Chicago, Alton, Springfield, Beardstown, Pekin, Quincy, Peoria, Bloomington, Galena, and Rock Island.

Their difficulties were many: houses were scarce, rents high, the streets so bad they became quagmires in rainy weather; according to a contemporary newspaper, the gutters were filled with “manure’ discarded clothing, and all kinds of trash, threatening the public health with their noxious fluvia.”

One of the issues of the day was the hog nuisance; the streets, squares, and parks were public hog-pens. “Urbana had a record of more hogs in the community than people, and the porker had an equal right with the citizens to the streets.” Nor were there public utilities until the middle fifties, when the more progressive communities began to install water systems and gas for street lighting.

Twenty years after the rush to the lead mines at Galena in the late 1820’s, at which time a group of tent-cities containing more than 10,000 people had sprung up, the gold rush to California swept through Illinois. In 1849 more than 15,000 men and boys left the State for the western fields. The exodus subsided in 1850 as a result of discouraging letters and editorial warnings, but in 1852, with new stories of gold discoveries, the rush was revived. With the opening of the fertile lands of Kansas and Nebraska to settlement in 1854, still another migration took place. In the gold rush to Pike’s Peak in 1859, additional thousands left the State. The whole of the fifties was characterized by this draining of Illinoisans to the West.

In their place came new families from the East and South. In 1849 there appeared in the Boston Post a poem which began:

Westward the of Empire Moves:

Come leave the fields of childhood,
Worn out by long employ,
And travel west and settle
In the State of Illinois.

The Yankees settled in the northern area, the Southerners in the “Egypt” delta and the southern region. The sharp division of Illinois into “upstate” and “downstate,” reflected in habits, politics, and culture, persisted for years.

In even greater numbers immigrants arrived from Europe. French Icarians under Cabet set up a communistic colony at Nauvoo, the old Mormon city, in 1849. Portugese came to Springfield and Jacksonville; Scandinavians to Chicago, Rockford, Galesburg, Victoria, Andover, and Moline. The Bishop Hill colony was settled by Swedish Janssonists in 1846. But by far the most numerous were the Germans, fleeing their country after the defeat of their Revolution in 1848, and the Irish, driven out by potato famines and British oppression.

By 1860 there were 130,804 Germans in Illinois, living chiefly in Chicago, Belleville, Galena, Quincy, Alton, Peoria, and Peru, perpetuating their rich culture in music societies, literary clubs, and Turnvereine. Many of the Irish were brought to Illinois to work on the canals and the railroads under the infamous system of contract labor; herded like cattle from Boston, New York, and Philadelphia to further Illinois internal improvements, they found, not the promised land of newspaper advertisements, but bad housing, improper diet, and unsanitary conditions, which took a large toll in illness and death.

Nowhere in the United States did the railroad fever of the fifties rage more than in Illinois. Farms were mortgaged, counties and municipalities subscribed to stock, Eastern capitalists poured millions into the enterprises. Many of the politicians in the State, from Governor French and Senator Douglas to township officials, speculated in land and railroad stock, and became wealthy. Charges and countercharges of corruption were hurled; the Illinois State Register declared in 1853 that the railroad bills “were prepared in New York and first canvassed by Wall Street men before they were sent to Springfield to secure legislative endorsement.”

Senator Douglas persuaded Congress to grant 2,707,200 acres of land, scattered over 47 counties, for the long-awaited Illinois Central Railroad, and in 1851 articles of incorporation were granted by the legislature to a group of Eastern financiers, headed by Robert Rantoul of Massachusetts, on condition that the State be paid 7 per cent of the gross receipts annually. In September 1856 the railroad was completed. Seven other roads were constructed in this period, and one, the Galena and Chicago, was able to pay dividends of 20 per cent after the first year of operation.

The railroads had a revolutionary effect on the life of the State. Most of the early settlements had been near rivers. Now the rich fertile prairie lands of the vast interior were opened to farming and mining, to become soon one of the greatest corn-producing and coalmining areas in the world. The coming of the railroads brought a wave of prosperity; by 1860 farm values had risen 50 per cent over those of 1850; farm and city, raw materials and markets, were brought together. Towns sprang miraculously out of the prairies. Communities off the railroads faded away.

In the struggle that split the Union and led to the Civil War, Illinois furnished the two opposing national leaders, Stephen A. Douglas and Abraham Lincoln. The State itself was soon as divided as the Nation. As early as 1796 and again in 1802, memorials from the Illinois country had been addressed to Congress asking for repeal of the prohibition against slavery in the Ordinance of 1787. In 1824 a movement to amend the State constitution to allow the introduction of slavery was defeated. The kidnapping of free Negro residents in the State was countenanced for two generations, and the “black laws” of 1819 were still in effect. In 1837 the State legislature, excited by the spread of Garrison’s abolitionism, passed a resolution excluding abolition papers from the State and making the circulation of abolition petitions to Congress illegal.

In the same year, November 8, the valiant abolitionist newspaper editor of the Alton Observer, Elijah P. Lovejoy, while defending his fourth press from destruction by Alton mobs, was shot dead. Lovejoy’s fight was continued by such men as Benjamin Lundy and his Genius of Universal Emancipation at Hennepin. Antislavery societies grew. In 1840 the Liberty Party was formed in Illinois, and by 1846 it had gained a majority in 13 northern counties.

Yet in 1853 an act drawn by John A. Logan providing that free Negroes who entered the State could be sold into servitude was passed by the legislature. This bill aroused the anger of Democrats and Whigs alike. Even so, the Democrats might have maintained their power in the State if Douglas had not in 1854 sponsored the Kansas-Nebraska bill enabling settlers in the new territories to choose between free soil and slavery, with an amendment thereto repealing the Missouri Compromise of 1820 which had prohibited slavery forever in the Louisiana purchase above the line of 36° 30′.

From the opposition to this bill, in the form of a coalition of disapproving Democrats, Whigs, and Free Soilers, came the germ of the Republican Party in Illinois. After a mass meeting in Rockford on March 18, 1854, and another at Ottawa on August 1, a State Republican convention was held in Springfield on October 4 and 5. In the elections of 1854 the State was almost equally divided; the northern or Yankee half voted solidly anti-Nebraska, while the southern or downstate half voted with the solid South. Looking now toward the national elections, the Republican Party of Illinois was organized at a convention in Bloomington, May 29, 1856, with some leaders in the Democratic Party of the State taking active parts. The first Republican governor, William H. Bissell, was elected that year.

The Dred Scott decision hastened the coming of the Civil War. When the United States Supreme Court in 1857, held that the Missouri Compromise was unconstitutional, and that Congress had no power to pass a law forbidding a master from carrying slaves into the territories, it posed a serious question. Could slavery be excluded from the territories by any means? Douglas contended that it could, because the people could withhold the protective local legislation essential to its existence. Yet even this doctrine had its faults, for soon he found himself at odds with President Buchanan and the slavery Democrats over popular sovereignty as manifested in the case of Kansas, then seeking admission to the Union. At the same time Douglas was losing ground. The senatorial contest in 1858 between Lincoln and Douglas was fought on the issue of free soil or popular sovereignty.

On the evening of his nomination for the senatorship by the Republican convention, at Springfield, Lincoln declared: “A house divided against itself cannot stand. I believe this government cannot endure permanently, half slave and half free.” Forecasting another decision like that in the Dred Scott case, but applying to the States as well as territories, he said, “Such a decision is all that slavery now lacks of being alike lawful in all the states.” The famous LincolnDouglas debates at Ottawa, Freeport, Jonesboro, Charlestown, Galesburg, Quincy, and Alton carried on the controversy.

In the last debate, at Alton, on October 15, 1858, Lincoln summed up his position in memorable words: “That is the issue… It is the eternal struggle between two principles–right and wrong–throughout the world…. The one is the common right of humanity, the other is the divine right of kings. It is the same principle in whatever shape it develops itself. It is the same spirit that says, ‘You toil and work and earn bread, and I’ll eat it.'” Douglas won the election in 1858; Lincoln won the presidency two years later.

With Lincoln in the White House and war declared, southern Illinois was spotted with sympathy for the Confederacy. At meetings such as that held at Marion in Williamson County, there was wild talk of setting up “Egypt” as a separate State aligned with the South. Douglas rushed back to Illinois from Washington to bring his followers to the support of the Government. But his strength sapped by years of political battles, he died on June 3, 1861, striving valiantly to turn back the flood he had helped to unloose.

Discontent with Lincoln was soon manifest, and in the fall of 1861 at the elections to the constitutional convention, the Democrats outnumbered the Republicans more than two to one. The Emancipation Proclamation and the arbitrary arrests for disloyal utterances during the war were responsible for the existence of a strong party of protest. But on the whole loyalty to the Union was strong in all parts of the State.

In four years Illinois contributed more than a quarter of a million men to the Union forces, and her soldiers died bravely on many battlefields. In 1864 Lincoln received a 30,736 majority vote in Illinois; and at his untimely death his most savage critics in the State paused to pay homage to him; the Chicago Times, suppressed once for disloyalty during the Civil War, declared that the public had come to “realize something of the magnitude of the concerns involved in his lease of existence.”

The war over, Illinois began to take stock: it had contributed heavily in money and men; 5,857 had been killed in action; 3,051 had died of wounds, and 19,934 of disease. Now, with its railroads and fertile farm lands, its factories and mines, its people from all over the world, the State settled down to the problem of construction. The Civil War had released the forces of industrialism and swung the balance away from agriculture throughout the Nation with the emancipation of slave labor, the beginnings of mechanization of farm work, and the gradual closing of the frontier.