Egypt: The Fundamentals of the Pyramides

Egypt: The Fundementals of the Pyramides

The fundamental motive of the pyramid is the funeral mound. A small upheaval above the natural level of the ground results of itself from the earth displaced by the bulk of the buried body. Our present practice of interment clearly illustrates this. Increased dimensions elevate the mound to an independent monument.

Many nations, some of a high degree of civilization, have contented themselves with such imposing hills of earth over the grave,–tumuli, which, from the manner of their construction, assumed a conical form. Others placed the mound upon a low cylinder, thus better marking its distinction from accidental natural elevations.

The Egyptians and the Mesopotamians rejected the cone entirely, and formed, with plane surfaces upon a square plan, the highly mon- umental pyramid. Peculiar to the former people are the inclined sides which give to the pyramid its absolute geometrical form, as opposed to the terraced structures of Chaldaea.

The sand of the desert ebbed and flowed fifty centuries ago as constantly as in our time, when the sphinx, after being uncovered to its base, has been quickly hidden again to the neck. Rulers, unwilling that their gigantic tombs should be thus submerged, were obliged to secure to them great height, with inclined and unbroken sides, upon which the sand could not lodge.

Great Pyramids: The symbols sacred to the Sun-God

Great Pyramids: The symbols sacred to the Sun-God

The Egyptians had many gods, but there were two whom they worshiped above all others. The sun, which shines so gloriously in the cloudless Egyptian sky, was their greatest god, and their most splendid temples were erected for his worship. Indeed, the pyramid is a symbol sacred to the Sun-god. They called him Re (pronounced ray). The other great power which they revered was the shining Nile.

The great river and the fertile soil he refreshes, and the green life which he brings forth–all these the Egyptian thought of together as a single god, Osiris, the imperishable life of the earth, which revives and fades every year with the changes of the seasons. It was a beautiful thought to the Egyptian that this same life-giving power which furnished him his food in this world would care for him also in the next, when his body lay out yonder in the great cemetery of Gizeh, which we are approaching.

But this vast cemetery of Gizeh tells us of many other things besides the religion of the Egyptians. As we look up at the colossal pyramids behind the Sphinx we can hardly grasp the fact of the enormous forward stride taken by the Egyptians since the days when they used to be buried with their flint knives in a pit scooped out on the margin of the desert. It was the use of metal which since then had carried them so far. That Egyptian in Sinai who noticed the first bit of metal lived over a thousand years before these pyramids were built. He was buried in a pit like that of the earliest Egyptian peasant.

Holiday in Turkey – The Land of Turks

Holiday in Turkey - The Land of Turks

The Turkish land has so much to see or do, from appreciating the historical richness and heritage to enjoying the water sports, winter sports, from shopping across the Istanbul markets to enjoying the opera, from hiking and climbing to walking the green trails, Turkey has something for everyone.

Situated between the continents of Europe and Asia, Turkey seems to have the best of both with it. Turkey is a developing country that also borders with the Middle East. Deciding to Holiday in Turkey is a perfect thought, especially, if you are interested in knowing its ancient and historical background as well as its archeological treasure. The first ruler of this land of Turks was Kemal Ataturk.

Things to do in Turkey

When visiting the Turkish land for a holiday in turkey, there are numerous things you can do to make your holiday a memorable one. These are:

– You can enjoy the adventure loaded activities like water sports in the Mediterranean and Aegian resorts, such as windsurfing, diving, water rafting sailing and water skiing.

– You can do mountain climbing, rock climbing on the famous mountain ranges like the Kackar Mountains (in Black Sea region) and Mount Ararat (in eastern Turkey).

Holiday in Turkey - The Land of Turks

– You can go shopping in Istanbul grand bazaar as well as along the streets of up market Nisantasi and Istiklal Caddesi (Pera). The Istanbul Grand Bazaar (Kapalicarsi) is known as world’s largest and biggest covered market.

– You can also go skiing and trekking in Turkey as part of your Turkish holiday. The Lycian Way stretches to 500 km and is between Fethiye and the Antalya, offering a great trekking region along with amazing greenery to add to the trekking experience. You can also go skiing in various resorts such as south of Bursa, Palandoken, Erciyes and many more.

– Play golf, with various golf courses available accross the resorts and the main golfing area being in the Belek Mediterranean resort.

– Do not forget to relish the Turkish bath in your Turkish holiday; these are famous as ‘Hamam’. The best of hamams are situated in the Istanbul, such as Cagaloglu Hamam (Sultanahmet) and Galatasaray Hamam (Beyoglu).

– If you are visiting in the months of June and July for your holiday in turkey, do not miss the Ballet festival and Aspendos International Opera.

Things to see in Turkey

Some of the top most Turkish attractions not to be missed when holidaying in turkey are Goreme Open-Air Museum, Ancient City of Ephesus, Kaymakli, Turkish Hamams, Blue Mosque (Sultan Ahmet Camii), Swan Bar, Topkapi Palace, Kapadokya Balloons, Yerebatan Sarayi (Underground Cistern), Sultanahmet District, historic town of Safranbolu, Ishak Pasa Palace, Lake Van, Mediterranean city of Antalya, Bodrum, Bosphorus suburbs, Sumala Monastery (54 kms from Trabzon) and more.

Visit Turkey in winter if you wish to enjoy your Turkish holiday with winter sports. But if you wish to holiday in turkey while enjoying the sun, sand and beaches, make sure its summer when you holiday in the land of Turks.

Egypt may be an endless playground for you

Egypt may be an endless playground for you

If you are looking for a holiday contrary to custom, but want to enjoy a relaxing, sun filled and exciting holiday, Egypt is certainly a reasonable option for you!

With it, the lines of participating in the beautiful north east coast offering both summer sun and winter in Egypt is increasingly popular throughout the year, and it only be a 7 hour flight from UK Kingdom makes holiday destination in Egypt an easily accessible and perfect.

If you are looking for the sun, the desert climate will certainly be in the hotel and you won, AOT need help finding a place to sunbathe! With most of the country being covered with sand, you’ll be spoiled for choice when it comes to basking in the sun.

Egypt offers obviously a bit of history simply outstanding for you to explore. Valley of the Kings in Luxor, with tombs, temples and statues, Cairo, the pyramids of the participant and the world famous museum holds some of the most famous treasures on earth, and the beauty of nature in the country of origin former life, the Nile Valley with it, flora and fauna AO.

If you love diving, Egypt will be an endless playground for you with its abundance of coral reefs and clear waters filled with fish clean the most spectacular. The year-round sunshine beaches has created a marine life, you can look at AOT nowhere else on the planet.

El Gouna is a beautiful network of islands that are separated only by shallow lagoons of blue light, each island has a small number of beach Äúhuts, the AU that are more like a five star hotel room on stilts. Water sports, horseback riding and eat and drink and is easy to find in this area and it makes it a perfect honeymoon or vacation for couples.

Nearby on the main field, there is a 18 hole golf course and a karting circuit in real size, so if you fancy a bit of a break from all the relaxing you Äôll do they offer an excellent excuse for a little fun.

If you are wanting to do really really far from everything, there is an area called Hurghada has many hotels on the seafront in front of small wrecks sting of the turquoise sea and small islands scattered in the distance. This area is known to be quiet, calm and relaxed. You need to do some travel for an action packed day, but if you want to hide away from the rat race to the fullest extent, Hurghada is an excellent choice for you.

From Cairo to Jerusalem

From Cairo to Jerusalem

Our adventure began in front of the pyramids in Cairo, Egypt. Five of us were trying to figure out how to get to Jerusalem, our next stop on our mini- tour of Egpyt and Israel.

Of course, we could have taken a plane and been there in a couple of hours, but we found out there was a bus route that goes to Israel with a stop at historic Mount Sinai.

I was not sure how this would work out, but we all agreed it would be a fun ride, so off we went.

Many tourists go to Mount Sinai, a holy place for both Jews and Christians, but apparently most don’t get there the way we went.

The passengers on board our bus were mostly locals. Some of them worked in Cairo and were going back to their homes in the Sinai desert’s towns.

After an hour of rough riding on the busy and bustling roads of Cairo, we reached the desert – it was flat and white during the first miles, and then became hilly with shades of black and brown.

At our first stop, I bumped into what has to be the dirtiest sink in the Middle East. It was covered in so much black grease and dust, that one could barely imagine that it had once been white.

Our driver, non- talkative at first, finally told us that although he drove in the Sinai desert road everyday, he was still moved by the beauty of the long stretches of rocks and sand.

Religious tradition has it that the Hebrews fled Egypt to Israel through the Sinai desert, with their children, animals and all the belongings they could carry along. It is difficult to imagine entire families and tribes walking across the scorching sun of the Sinai desert.

It was hard enough going the 195 miles from Cairo to Mount Sinai in a bus. But we made it in time for some sleep, and were up at 2:30 a.m. to hike to the summit of Mount Sinai in time for sunrise.

Along the way, people offered to rent us camels, but I was up for the real experience – a three-hour hike in the mountain wearing flip flops! Which by the way, I do not recommend.
Read more “From Cairo to Jerusalem”

Turkey: Foca Population, Temperature, Sightseeing Tours and Excursion

Turkey: Foca Population, Temperature, Sightseeing Tours and Excursion

Foça (from Greek: Φώκαια, “Phocaea”) is a town and district in Turkey’s İzmir Province, on the Aegean coast. The town of Foça is situated at about 69 km (43 mi) northwest of İzmir’s city center. The district also has a township with its own municipality named Yenifoça (literally “New Foça”), also along the shore and at a distance of 20 km (12 mi) from Foça proper. For this reason, Foça itself is locally often called as Eskifoça (“Old Foça”) in daily parlance. The ancient city of Phocaea (Greek: Φώκαια) is located between the two modern Foças.

Additionally, Yenifoça, taken over by the Genoese in 1275 as a fief from the Byzantine emperor, was the more active of the two Foças during the Middle Ages, principally due to the region’s rich alum reserves (the alum mines of Foça were conceded earlier by the Byzantines, in 1267, to the Genoese brothers Benedetto and Manuele Zaccaria); the Genoese lease over them having been preserved well into the Ottoman era

Another important Byzantine concession to the Genoese through dowry was the nearby island of Lesbos (to the Gattilusio family, as a result of the marriage between Francesco I Gattilusio and Maria Palaiologina, sister of Byzantine emperor John V Palaiologos) in 1355. The possessions of the Gattilusio family eventually grew to include, among others, the islands of Imbros, Samothrace, Lemnos and Thasos, and the city of Aenos (modern Enez in Turkey.)[4] From this position, they were heavily involved in the mining and marketing of alum, useful in textile production and a profitable trade controlled by the Genoese.

Eski Foça stretches along two bays; a larger one named Büyükdeniz (“Greater Sea”) and a smaller cove within that large one, named Küçükdeniz (“Smaller Sea”), where the medieval castle is also located.

Many parts of the district are under strict environmental protection, due to the value of the flora and the fauna, and the beauty of the small bays and coves, especially between Foça and Yenifoça. Therefore, a judicious way to get to know the district would be by boat tours regularly organized in partance from the town center. Because of the protective measures, new constructions are not permitted in many parts of the district and Foça is set to preserve its unique characteristic as composed principally of old houses.

Population: 12.000

Altitude: Sea Level

Airport: Adnan Menderes Airport 85 Km

Transfer: Bus, mini bus

Average temperature in centigrade: Jan 15; Feb 16; Mar 20; Apr 23; May 28; Jun 31;Ju133; Aug 33; Sep 30; Oct 26; Nov 20; Dec 18.

City transport: Taxi and mini bus

Sights and local attractions: Tasev, Beskapilar Castle, Amphitheatre, Rocks, Fatih Mosque and Siren Rocks

Sightseeing Tours and Excursion:

1. Bergama (85 km.)

2. Ephesus (144 km.)

3. Ayvalik (190 km.)

Nile: The Valley between Aswan and Isna

Nile: The Valley between Aswan and Isna

From Aswan to the sea the gradient of the Nile averages only 1:13, 000 (1 meter to 13 kilometers), as compared to 1:11, 000 in the narrow Nubian valley. A short distance downstream from Aswan the crystalline rocks that border the valley and outcrop in the river in northern Nubia disappear again beneath the Nubian sandstone.

The sandstone here also includes soft beds of clay, and the bordering plateau scarps recede, leaving space for the formation of alluvial beds which gradually develop northward into a continuous flood plain. The first alluvial plain of any considerable size is that of Kom Ombo, on the east bank about 25 miles north of Aswan. There, two trunk wadis, Kharit and Sha’it, debouch from the east and the valley widens eastward to a maximum of 10 miles, with the river flowing along its western edge. On the black fertile soil are the sugar cane plantations.

The sandstone ridge of Gebel Silsila, a strong fault scarp across the north edge of Kom Ombo, accounts for the existence of free plain. During the forming of the Nile valley this rock barrier held back the water discharged by the Kharit and Sha’it wadis from the Red Sea Mountains and later by the Nile itself from its upper sources. The main drainage of the basin then was through a broad channel east of Gebel Silsila.

This channel was eventually choked with alluvial debris and is now an abandoned valley through which the railroad has been routed. The present channel of the Nile cuts through a five-mile stretch of gorges at the west end of Gebel Silsila. This is an almost barren section of the valley; only in narrow fringes of green toward the west-bank town of Idfu, 65 miles (104 km.) north of Aswan, does the flood plain begin again.

The location of Idfu is of special interest because at this point the flood plain of the Nile begins to widen. From here on, the arable, irrigated land extends continuously all the way to the delta, bordering the river on both sides, but generally much wider on the west side than on the east. Since ancient times important caravan tracks have connected both the Eastern and Western deserts with the valley at Idfu.

Istanbul, the Mediterranean and Aegean coasts

Istanbul, the Mediterranean and Aegean coasts

Turkey’s tourist industry is centered around Istanbul and the resorts of the Mediterranean and Aegean coasts (Especially Antalya), and it is here that the majority of modern hotels are to be found. The inland regions of Pamukkale, Cappadocia, and Konya are now being developed for tourism, but outside these regions Turkey’s heartland has little to offer in the way of good hotels.

There are, however, advantages to travelling independently in Turkey, as in any country, particularly if you enjoy the challenge of going it alone. You will be your own boss and not one of a crowd of tourists, and you will have a far better chance of sampling Turkish life as it really is. Wherever you go in Turkey you can always find cheap places to stay, but the standard of accommodation sometimes varies greatly. One thing you won’t have to suffer in Turkey are the rows of unsightly hotels which mar the coastlines of so many Mediterranean resorts. One of the country’s main selling points, apart from its guaranteed summer sunshine, is the friendliness of the Turks themselves. Whether you’re touring the country or staying in one place, you’ll always be greeted with warmth and hospitality.

If you are looking for a reasonably priced and carefree holiday in Turkey, a package holiday is your best option. In the past few years, European tour operators have begun to recognize Turkey’s great potential as a holiday destination, and package holidaymakers can choose now from a wide range of holidays for every type and every budget. The holidays on offer range from two weeks in a busy resort such as Antalya to an away-from-it-all break in an unspoilt spot in the Aladaglar Mountains. The all-inclusive cost of a package holiday is hard to beat for an independent traveller, unless you are a student (under 22), in which case you qualify for an incredible 60 per cent discount on international flights by THY (Turkish Airlines) on producing an International Student Identity Card.

Tour operators are increasingly offering destinations in inland regions such as Cappadocia, so you mustn’t assume that a package holiday automatically means a Majorca-type experience. And there is no reason why a package holiday should confine you to one resort, as many operators now offer two-centre packages, sailing holidays and touring holidays in Turkey. Eating is also very cheap and you can eat well even on the lowest budget.