Broadway: The Longest and Most Fantastic Street in the World

Broadway: The Longest and Most Fantastic Street in the World

Broadway, the longest and most fantastic street in the world, starts its 16-mile journey from the tip of Manhattan as a shipping lane, moves a few blocks north to the Wall Street financial center, passes by the civic buildings of the city, and takes a diagonal course from Union Square through the needle-trades area between 34th and 39th Streets.

Between 42d and 53d Streets, Broadway is the Great White Way —renowned as an amusement and theatrical center. From 53rd Street to Columbus Circle it cuts through Automobile Row, center of the auto retail trade. It changes its diagonal course at 79th Street to parallel the island’s high escarpment facing the Hudson River.

Here it is lined with hotels, apartment houses, cafeterias, beauty salons, movie houses, and churches. At 114th Street it strikes a new note in the buildings of Columbia University, and another at 155th Street in a group of museums. From this point on it is a nondescript thoroughfare, ending as a semisuburban road as it approaches the city’s limits.

What was New York like during World War II

What was New York like during World War II

Wartime New York City, was, however, to be a far more carefree place than London or Paris, as commentators from areas closer to the war effort neglected no opportunity to show. To be sure, there was for a time a dim-out, ordered not so much through fear of bombs as because the glow of the city’s lights silhouetted shipping for enemy U-boats lurking out at sea. In this halfway measure, the streets were still lighted, a British visitor of 1942 reported; but the “glaring advertisements” which formerly kept Broadway “in perpetual light” were now extinguished, and “all windows above the 10th floor… screened.”

New Yorkers gained some sense of participation in the struggle as air-raid precautions, inaugurated six months before Pearl Harbor, were “practiced and more or less perfected,” sirens were tested, and wardens and plane spotters began to stand watch on tall buildings and rural hilltops. Women took over tasks formerly performed by men–driving cabs, operating elevators, and serving as telegraph messengers–when Selective Service pulled nearly 900,000 New Yorkers into uniform.

The rationing of food and gasoline prompted the most obvious sacrifices, at least for those to whom the black market was not available. But for New Yorkers without close friends or relatives overseas, the sight of servicemen on leave and of the cargo vessels and tankers, “lined up on the Hudson and East River, with their camouflage and artillery, awaiting the formation of convoys,” constituted the closest contact with the shooting war.

What was New York like during World War II

To the casual observer, New York seemed hardly touched by the conflict. The British novelist James L. Hodson saw no sign of a dimout in the winter and spring of 1943-1944; and the naivete of the airraid instructions he found in his hotel bedroom showed him “how far” New York really was “from the war.” At Christmas time the city was gay with holiday decorations.

Cocktail parties preceded dinners boasting menus “astounding to British eyes.” The season was described as “the craziest Christmas for spending” ever known. “There is no war here,” Carlos Romulo contended, in amazement, when he reached New York shortly after the fall of the Philippines. He was horrified at what appeared to be the “holiday air of the people,” rushing madly about–in a “Coney-Island” dim-out–“spending fabulous sums as if they were in the midst of a carnival.”

Only after he had observed the city more closely did the Philippine statesman realize that New York, too, was fighting the war-giving blood, buying bonds, and, above all, moving men and goods in a degree that contributed significantly to victory. The city’s surface frivolity, he ultimately concluded, was in part, at least, a reflection of the way that New York showed its fighting spirit. It was a consequence, too, as other commentators were aware, of the very nature of New York’s most important wartime contribution–the production and movement of goods essential to the war effort.

As production expanded and shipping throve, wages increased, and New Yorkers had more to spend than ever before. At the same time, fewer necessities were available for purchase as a result of wartime restrictions. Hence an unprecedented portion of the worker’s income was at hand for spending at theatres, movie houses, race tracks, restaurants, and bars. It was this, in the opinion of Pierre de Lanux, which caused the erroneous impression that “what was happening overseas had no repercussion on life in the United States” and gave service personnel returning from combat the generally unjustified feeling that New Yorkers were blind to the realities of the conflict.

De Lanux is the authority, too, for New York’s reaction to the victory when it came in 1945. Despite the scarcity of paper, ticker tape rained on Broadway following news of the German armistice in May; and with the defeat of Japan, in August, the sobering implications of Hiroshima did not prevent New Yorkers from staging a real celebration. “From the dignified flag-bedecked residences, uptown, to the gaudily decorated tenements of the East Side and ‘Little Italy,’ the national colors floated amid clouds of confetti, cheering cries, the honking of horns, and the wail of sirens,” the French chronicler reported.

The churches were filled in the morning; then a general rejoicing took possession of the entire city, which reached a climax by evening. At Times Square, the crowds were so dense that the police had difficulty intervening when soldiers and sailors, sharing their joy with the civilians, “embraced and mussed up some of them” in the bargain. “Statisticians will never say exactly how much alcoholic beverage passed from production to consumption that night,” de Lanux asserted, “but the figure would certainly be expressed in tons rather than liters.”

Like the commentators of earlier days, those of the thirties and forties recognized the role of the port in the city’s economy, especially in connection with the nation’s colossal war operation; but increasingly their attention turned to the magnitude of the city’s industrial output, as well. Referring to New York of the mid-forties as “the greatest manufacturing town on earth,” John Gunther pointed out, in his Inside U. S. A., that Manhattan alone employed “more wage earners than Detroit and Cleveland put together,” Brooklyn more than Boston and Baltimore, and Queens more than Washington and Pittsburgh, combined. More persons were engaged in New York’s garment trades than made automobiles in Detroit or steel in Pittsburgh, according to a similar comment in the New York Times.

Broadway and Little Italy

Broadway and Little Italy

Broadway, a block east of University Place, is at its drabbest in this sector. At Tenth Street and Broadway rises the lacelike Grace Episcopal Church consecrated in 1846. It was designed by James Renwick, architect of St. Patrick’s Cathedral. Typically English are the square east end, the elaboration of the ribbing of the vaulting, and the arrangement of tracery in the windows. The carved ornament of the exterior is crisp and incisive. The adjoining Grace Church School, organized in 1894, was ‘s fir st institution for training choir boys. In 1934 a day school was also inaugurated which now offers a complete secondary school curriculum.

The swerve of Broadway at this point attests to the stubbornness of Hendrick Brevoort, whose tavern stood on the present church site and who refused to allow the street to be cut through because it would mean the destruction of a favorite tree. One block south is John Wanamaker, one of the oldest and foremost department stores in New York.

It passed into the hands of its present owners in 1896. The original north) store, erected by A. T. Stewart in 1862, is believed to be the first building in the city with a cast-iron front. A skylighted “open well” in the center of the old store recalls the days before electricity made good illumination possible. Upon the completion of the new building in 1905, the two were joined by a bridge similar in design to the Bridge of Sighs in Venice. Attractions offered by the store include Christmas concerts by famous choirs, exhibits by the American Artists Congress in May, and marionette shows.

At No. 673 stands the BROADWAY CENTRAL, built in the 1870’s to be “America’s most palatial hotel.” The National Baseball League was organized here in 1876. In this hotel Edward S. Stokes shot and killed James Fisk, president of the Erie Railroad, in January, 1872, in a quarrel over Josie Mansfield, actress.

Little Italy

South of Washington Square and stretching to Spring Street lies a section of Little Italy. Numerous Italian cafés and restaurants, some small and wholly native, several — particularly on West Houston Street — having city-wide fame, cater to the needs of the residents and visitors. Here are held minor fiestas, with streets strung with lights, with singing and dancing, and the sale of candies and ices. On Bleecker Street between Sixth and Seventh Avenues is a pushcart market displaying fruits and vegetables, many, such as finochio and zucchini, exotic to Americans. Fortunio, a proprietor of a restaurant on this street, is said to have imported the first broccoli in the country. The Little Red School House, an experimental school for children, is at 196 Bleecker Street.

Eighth Street and the Art Galleries

Eighth Street, between Fifth and Sixth Avenues, with its bookshops, antique shops, food shops, tearooms, bars, and art galleries, has been called the “Main Street” of Greenwich Village. At No. 4 is the Clay Club, working headquarters and gallery for a group of sculptors. The building, originally the stable belonging to the marble house on Fifth Avenue, was remodeled by the owner, John Taylor Johnston, as an exhibition gallery for his private collection. Impressed by his success, a group of wealthy collectors organized the Metropolitan Museum of Art in 1870. At Nos. 8-12 is the WHITNEY MUSEUM OF AMERICAN ART, founded in 1931 “to help create rather than conserve a tradition.”

Brooklyn Bridge in Blue Night

Brooklyn Bridge in Blue Night

Up through Brooklyn and along the great bridges there is continuous travel by trolley, motor, and foot, from early in the morning. Before nine o’clock the tide is at its flood. Around the New York exit of the Brooklyn Bridge the currents from many directions meet and mingle to make a veritable whirlpool of humanity that circles and eddies, foams and dashes, gets mixed up in a roaring swirl, then collapses in froth, dissipates, and finally trickles away in small streams to various points of the compass.

Of course there is a blocking of traffic, and occasionally an accident, due to the rush off or on the cars, that produces confusion, excitement, loud protest, or angry denunciation. But this, though a not unusual occurrence, always leaves the pushed and hustled crowd more or less indifferent. Everyone knows that the thoroughfares are insufficient during “rush” hours; but they do not know how matters can be helped.

There is less of a crowd at the Williamsburgh Bridge because it is not the most direct route to the lower part of the city. It is one of the ways by which those who do business in the middle Broadway region travel, and it contributes its sum to the mass that each morning moves into the city; but it lends not directly to the congestion of the lower town. Still, though it is not a direct way, it adds something, like the ferries beneath it that keep coming and going from shore to shore.

Time was when the ferries at South and Wall and Fulton streets were the only means of getting into the lower town from Brooklyn, and they were then, in the morning hours, often loaded with people to the gunwales; but since the building of the new bridges and the opening of the Battery tube, they have been used but little. Eventually their occupation will be gone completely.

Thousands upon thousands swarm into the city from Long Island. Bridges creak and ferries strain and tunnels roar with the weight of them; and the rasp and shuffle of their feet along the decks, along the bridge approaches, and along the flagged streets help make that deep undertone of the city to which the electric cars add the high note.

Yet Brooklyn and beyond is only one source of intake. The shores of the Upper Bay, Staten Island, Coney Island, send up their quota by steamer and ferry-boat; while from the Hudson, reaching far into the state, steamboats and railways are bringing down and disembarking more thousands to swell the throng. But the body of commuters that comes in from New Jersey is, perhaps, the greatest of them all.

Probably four hundred thousand people is a moderate estimate for those who daily travel into New York from across the Hudson. It is nearer, no doubt, to a million. The local trains on all the railways through New Jersey are crowded from seven to ten in the morning, and the double-decked ferries that push and snort and whistle their various ways from shore to shore look black with massed humanity.

Again, as on the East River side, there are long tunnels under the Hudson, carrying passengers in swift electric cars; and these are lessening the crush on the ferries for the time being, but it will not be long before both tunnels and ferries are once more inadequate. The population in New Jersey that comes and goes daily to New York is increasing by thousands each year, and the greater the ease in getting to town, the better the traveling facilities, the more people there are willing enough to live in the country in preference to the crowded quarters of the upper city.

Blue New York City Poster Print, New York City Skyscrapers Brooklyn Bridge Posters, New York City Skyscrapers at Night, Blue Night Moonlight Effect NYC Skscrapers Photo Picture, Manhattan Financial District at Blue Night Pop Art Style Digital Photo Image

New York City Skyscrapers Brooklyn Bridge

New York City Skyscrapers Brooklyn Bridge

New York is fast becoming the art center of the world. In addition to the museums there are always exhibits in privately owned art galleriesand other events of special interest. These are usually described in the art and music sections of the daily newspapers, particularly the ‘N. Y. Times’ and the ‘N. Y. Herald Tribune,’ and in such magazines as ‘Cue’ and ‘The New Yorker.’ The principal private art galleries are in the vicinity of East 57th St.; visitors are welcome.

Blue New York City Poster Print – New York City Skyscrapers Brooklyn Bridge Posters
New York City Skyscrapers at Night – Blue Night Moonlight Effect NYC Skscrapers Photo Picture – Brooklyn Bridge, Manhattan Financial District at Blue Night Pop Art Style Digital Photo Image

Bronx – Concourse Plaza, 161st St. & Grand Concourse, Moderate sized; near Yankee Stadium; reasonable.

Brooklyn – St. George, 51 Clark St. Extremely large, commercial, residental and transient; swimming pool, all facilities; reasonable.

Hotels in New York Manhattan East Side

Hotels in New York Manhattan East Side

— Beckman Tower, 49th St. & First Avenue. Near United Nations; transient and residential; moderate.

— Belmont Plaza, 49thSt. & Lexington Ave. Large, residental and transient, moderate.

— Beverly, 125 E. 50th St. Moderate-sized, residential and transient; moderate-expensive.

— Commodore, 109 E. 42nd St. Extremely large, adjacent to Grand Central Station; specializes in banquets, conventions; moderate.

— Lexington, Lexington Ave. & 48th St. Large, residential and transient; moderate. Manger-Vanderbilt, Park Ave. & 34th St. Medium-sized; quiet at night, moderate.

— New Weston, 34 E. 50th St. Transient and tesidental; quiet; popular with international travelers; expensive.

— Roger Smith, Lexington Ave. & 47th St. Small, quiet; features suites; moderate.

— Shelburne, Lexington Ave. & 37th St. Residental and transient; quiet at night; moderate.

— Shelton Towers, Lexington Ave. & 49th St. Busy commercial; moderate.

— Sheraton East, formerly the Ambassador, Park Ave. & 51st St. Partly residential; quiet and dignified; expensive.

— Barclay, 111 E. 48th St. Moderate-sized, residental and transient, expensive.

— Berkshire, 52nd St. & Madison Ave. Moderate-sized.

— luxurious, moderate-expensive.

— Biltmore, 43rd St. & Madison Ave. Very large, partly commercial; moderate.

— Carlyle, 76th St. & Madison Ave. Out of hotel area; quiet, residential and transient, quiet; moderate-expensive.

— Delmonico, Park Ave. & 59th St. Large, expensive.

— Drake, Park Ave. & 54th St. Fairly large, centrally located, residential and transient; expensive

— Gotham, 5th Ave. & 55th St. Quiet, dignified; residential and transient; expensive.

— Park Lane, Park Ave. & 49th St. Fairly large, residential and transient; dignified; expensive.

— Pierre, 5th Ave. & 61st St. Exclusive, smart, expensive.

— Plaza, 5th Ave. & 59th St. Famous, view of Central Park; several dining rooms and night clubs; expensive.

— Roosevelt, Madison Ave. & 45th St. Large, transient with some commercial features; moderate.

— Savoy Hilton, 5th Ave. & 59th St. Large, residential and transient; moderate expensive.

— Tuscany, 120 E. 39th St. Fairly samll, residential and transient; quiet at night, expensive.

— Waldorf-Astoria, 50th St. & Park Ave. World famous, extremely large; all facilities, banquets, shops, moderate-expensive.

— Westbury, 69th St. & Madison Ave. Residential and transient, quiet, dignified; in residential area; moderate-expensive.

Destination New York

Destination New York

New York (the Empire State) has the largest state population in the country. The state has a varied topography but is mostly rolling land and pleasant valleys; there are two important mountain ranges, the Catskills in the southeast, and the Adirondacks in the northeast. In the western part of the state is the famous Finger Lake district. Summers are moderately hot in southern New york, but cooler in the northern portion; winters are severe in the north and west, but comparatively mild in the southern half.

The leading products are ladies’ and men’s clothing, knit goods, paper, chemicals, photographic supplies, minerals, fish and agricultural products. New York City is a major printing and publishing center as well as a famous financial and banking center.

Other important cities are Buffalo, Rochester, Syracuse, Yonkers, Albany (the capital), Utica, Schenectady, Niagara Falls, Binghampton, Mount Vernon, New Rochelle, Jamestown, Poughkeepsie, Rome and Watertown. Vacation spots include Alexandria Bay and the Thousand Island district, Ausable Chasm, the Catskill and Adirondack mountain areas, Lake Champlain, Lake George, Lake Placid, Saranac Lake, Schroon Lake, Old Farge, Saratoga Springs and Watkins Glen, and on eastern Long Island, the Hampton Bays, Southampton and Montauk Point.

Illinois History 19th Century 1818-1848

Illinois History 19th Century 1818-1848

Through the gateway at Shawneetown, down the main highway of the Ohio River, settlers converged upon the young State from many directions–from North Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia, Kentucky, Maryland, Pennsylvania, New York, and the New England States. In flatboats and keelboats loaded with horses, cattle, and furniture, they came. Some, too poor to pay for this kind of transportation, struck out across country and braved the wilderness.

“The eye sometimes surveys the green prairie without discovering on the illimitable plain a tree or bush, or any other object, save the wilderness of flowers and grass,” wrote an English traveler who crossed the State in the twenties. “On other occasions the view is enlivened by groves dispersed like islands on the plain, or by a solitary tree rising above the wilderness.”

Because of a widespread belief in the superior fertility of woodland, because of the toughness of the prairie sod and the pioneer’s constant need for timber, the first settlers built their cabins along the river bottoms and in the groves. But as population increased and desirable sites became scarce, hardy adventurers pushed out into the prairies, and thus discovered the almost limitless richness of the great treeless regions.

Despite hardships, they kept coming, first the advance guard of lone-wolf trappers and hunters, then the poor squatters, followed by farmers with stock and capital, and finally young men of education seeking their fortunes in land and trade. Socialistic and religious colonies organized elsewhere and migrated here: Birkbeck’s English colony at Albion ( 1818), the Quakers on the Fox River ( 1835), Swiss wine-grape growers along the Ohio, Bishop Chase and his jubilee College at Robin’s Nest ( 1839), later the Swedish Janssonists at Bishop Hill ( 1846), and the Mormons ( 1839) and Icarians ( 1850) at Nauvoo.

In Illinois As It Is, Fred Gerhard wrote in a chapter entitled “Hints To Immigrants”: “A pair of good horses, a wagon, a cow, a couple of pigs, several domestic fowl, two ploughs (one for breaking the prairie, and the other for tillage), together with a few other tools and implements, are all that is necessary for a beginning. A log house can soon be erected.”

The frontier towns were busy centers of trade; the produce of the land and the forest–furs, skins, honey, corn, whiskey, venison, beef, pork–could be bartered for goods and shipped down to New Orleans in flatboats. In these towns all elements rubbed elbows, “the young college graduate and the lone-wolf trapper, the fine lady and the squatter’s wife.”

But the great curse of the expanding frontier fell on these towns and farms: they lacked capital. The produce of the West poured down the Mississippi–only to accumulate on the wharves at New Orleans. The small sums of money that dribbled through to the West went directly back East to pay debts. The Federal banking system, inadequate in its credit mechanisms, and the State banks, unstable and uncontrolled, made merchants and farmers distrustful of all banking systems.

The State banks at Edwardsville and Shawneetown failed in the early twenties, but in the late thirties a much more serious confusion occurred, in both Federal and State banking systems. Soon all bank notes were so suspect that barter of tangibles was quite commonly preferred to any kind of paper money. But there was only a small market for produce, and debt-ridden farmers, unable to dispose of their goods and too numerous to be dispossessed, filled the State.

Not far behind the first settlers came the frontier church. A Methodist circuit-rider, the Reverend Joseph Lillard, stopped at New Design in 1793. The first Baptist church was founded there three years later; the denomination was strengthened by the coming of John Mason Peck and his establishment, the Rock Spring Seminary, in 1827. The Methodists, with their circuit-riding preachers, began to arrive in 1801; they taught simplicity in dress and living, and sowed the beginnings of the anti-slavery movement in the State. In 1796 came the Presbyterians with the Reverend John Evans at their head; insisting on a learned clergy, they quickly established their denominational colleges. Despite its early missionary work and the adherence of the French settlers, the Catholic church grew more slowly; not until 1844 was the separate diocese of Chicago established.

The question of public education was debated bitterly. The largest part of the population had been drawn from the South, which had developed no public school systems. Those from the North thought that education was a function of the church. Finally, in 1825, a law allowing localities to levy school taxes was passed, only to be repealed soon afterwards; it was not until 1845, as the result of a campaign waged by the workers and farmers of the State, that a free education law was again passed, and even then years elapsed before many communities took advantage of it.

The population of the State grew from 55,211 in 1820 to 157,445 in 1830. With this growth came a tremendous shift in the distribution of population. Opened in 1825, the Erie Canal brought swarms of immigrants by way of the Great Lakes, repeating the process of settlement that had been occurring through the Ohio River Valley for half a century. Fort Dearborn, rebuilt in 1816, was the nucleus of a settlement incorporated as the town of Chicago in 1833, and as a city in 1837.

A feverish campaign for internal improvements spread in the thirties; by the end of the decade the movement had brought the State to the verge of bankruptcy under a staggering debt of $14,000,000. In 1837 a flood of measures had been passed by the legislature, providing for the building of railroads, canals, and turnpikes, and the improvement of rivers and harbors. A canal charter had been granted in 1825; in 1827 Congress had given 224,322 acres to the State. The Illinois and Michigan Canal was begun in 1836. The Wabash, Illinois, Kaskaskia and Rock Rivers were to be deepened and improved. A great Illinois Central Railroad from the western terminus of the canal at La Salle to the mouth of the Ohio River at Cairo was proposed, with two east-west lines, “the Southern Cross” from Alton to Mount Carmel, and “the Northern Cross” through Springfield and Quincy.

At the same time the question of removing the State capital from Vandalia arose; Alton, Jacksonville, Peoria, Springfield, and others, wished to succeed it. They also wanted the benefits of the internal improvements. Consequently, in the session of 1837, the Sangamon County delegates, called the “Long Nine,” because all its members-including Abraham Lincoln–were exceptionally tall men, arranged a trade. They voted internal improvements for these towns in return for votes for Springfield as the capital.

The hysteria of the internal improvement scheme was broken by the panic of 1837. For the enormous debt with which the State was burdened, it was able to show only one short railroad line, the Northern Cross from Springfield to Meredosia; built at a cost of $1,850,000, the road was sold at auction some years later for $21,000. The Illinois and Michigan Canal, begun in 1836, was not completed until 1848.

A tragic episode in the history of the State, the Black Hawk War of 1832, saw the passing of the Indian from Illinois forever. The Sauk and Fox once claimed all the land west of the Fox and the Illinois, and east of the Mississippi Rivers. In 1804, while five of their chiefs were in St. Louis arranging for the release of one of their tribesmen charged with murder, they were plied with drink. In return for an annuity of a thousand dollars a year, and the right to live and hunt in the area so long as it belonged to the Federal government, they deeded the land away.

In 1816, 1822, and 1825, the agreement was renewed, although how well the Indian chiefs understood the terms of these treaties will always remain a mystery. The tribes continued to live at their great villages, the Sauk on the north side of Rock River near the present city of Rock Island, and the Fox three miles away on the Mississippi. Miners heading for the newly discovered lead mines at Galena saw their fertile lands, and by 1825 white settlers began to move in upon them. Realizing the inevitability of a conflict, Keokuk, the peace-time chief of the tribes, decided to move Pcross the Mississippi into what is now Iowa.

But Black Hawk, a war chief less friendly to the settlers, persuaded by British and Indian friends that one thousand dollars a year was manifestly inadequate payment for this vast region, decided to remain on the land. The majority of the tribe left for Iowa, but friction soon developed between those who remained and the settlers; Black Hawk ordered the whites to stop plowing up the burial grounds of his ancestors and planting in the cornfields of the tribes. Governor Reynolds proclaimed Illinois in a “state of actual invasion” by the Indians and called for volunteers. When the volunteer army approached the Indian village on June 25, 1831, Black Hawk ordered the village abandoned, and under cover of night the Indians moved across the Mississippi into Iowa without a struggle.

In the spring of 1832, Black Hawk and four hundred braves, together with their women and children, crossed the Mississippi, apparently intending to go to the Winnebago in Wisconsin, and raise a corn crop with them. Their mission was misunderstood, and troops again took the field. Under Major Isaiah Stillman, they came upon the Indians encamped. Black Hawk sent three braves with white flags to explain that no hostilities were intended. In the excitement accompanying the negotiations, shooting began; three Indian tribesmen, including one of the truce-bearers, were killed. In the ensuing Battle of Stillman’s Run, the white men were ingloriously routed.

Guerrilla warfare began, with the Indians proving elusive in the forests. In July, his forces weakened by hunger, Black Hawk decided to surrender. He wanted to return his people to Iowa, but again his offer of truce went unheeded. Most of the warriors were killed at the Battle of Bad Axe, August 2, 1832, where the white men turned savage and committed indescribable acts of cruelty, even scalping the Indians. As women and children of the tribes tried to cross the Mississippi on rafts, a gunboat opened fire, killing or drowning most of them. Those who escaped the Battle of Bad Axe and managed to cross to the west side of the river were set upon by the Sioux, the traditional enemies of the Sauk and Fox. These events, together with the great peace pow-wow held in Chicago in 1833, in which the Potawatomi and their allies ceded all their land in Illinois and moved west of the Mississippi, removed the last of the Indians from the State.

A decade later came the Mormon wars. Driven from Missouri, the Mormons moved across the Mississippi to the town of Nauvoo in 1839. They received many concessions from the State legislature, and built a community that exceeded Chicago and Galena in population and industry. Then dissension developed; men who were excommunicated, turned on the colony with exposés, charging that the interests in the community of Joseph Smith, the leader, were financial and political rather than spiritual. Trouble with neighbors grew. In 1844 warrants were issued against Joseph Smith and his brother Hyrum for rioting and treason.

They were arrested and incarcerated in the jail at Carthage. While the prisoners were awaiting trial, the jail was broken into by a mob on June 27, and the Smith brothers were murdered. Then began the acts of violence which, for two years, amounted almost to civil war, with Governor Ford marching and countermarching the militia across the State in an effort to preserve peace. The problem was finally solved after it had flared into open battle; the Mormons, yielding to superior force, left the State and migrated to Utah.

A new constitution was adopted in 1848. The population of the State increased from 157,445 in 1830 to 851,470 in 1850. The constitution of 1818 was obviously inadequate, and many reforms were needed. The new constitution provided for popular election of all State officials and popular referendum on questions of policy. As a compromise between the township system brought from the North, and that of counties from the South, the new constitution provided for both forms of local organization.

The Roosevelt Hotel, Manhattan New York

The Roosevelt Hotel, Manhattan New York

Roosevelt Hotel, Madison Avenue and East 45th Street, New York, New York 10017.

Not exactly what you’d expect as a beguiling aspect, looking out on a late night at the office somebody else’s office. But for this, our 105th Room with a View, we turned the camera on ourselves.

It just happened that at this epic moment (for us), the hotel across the street, the Roosevelt, had undergone a much-needed face-lift. There is a buzz about Madison Avenue-home of Giorgio Armani, Calvin Klein, Ralph Lauren, and, symbolically, the art of advertising-and the Roosevelt Hotel itself is steeped in history. Nationally known for its New Year’s Eve radio broadcasts with Guy Lombardo, the big ballroom and its big bands played host to New York’s bejeweled elite of the 1920s and ’30s.

”Auld Lang Syne” brought in the new yeaı; waiters with champagne cocktails roamed the Roosevelt Grill, and porters greeted guests arriving at Grand Central Terminal and escorted them straight to their rooms ($5.45 a night back in 1932). Those days (and those prices) are gone, and one of the first hotels to install radios in every room has at last traded them in for more timely TV sets. But some things do return-the underground tunnel to Grand Central will reappear within a yeaı; this time far rush-hour commuters and other midtown males.

The lobby, with its high ceiling and low-hanging chandeliers, its new marble floors, and its refurbished antique trimmings, should still make for grand entrances. And as part of a rejuvenated railroad complex, the hotel could be hot again. This is the view from Room 927, right on the Avenue. Here’ s looking at you!

New York Career Guidance

New York Career Guidance

Career guidance can be a critical intervention for residents of large cities like New York where the network of educational, training, and employing institutions is too complex and differentiated to be readily understood. Without informed help during the decision-making process, many city dwellers find it difficult to plan courses of action that will enable them to make the most of their career options.

As New Yorkers attempt to negotiate the interlocking educational, training, and employment structures, the mediation of guidance counselors may ease their progress into and through the labor market and help them to surmount institutional barriers that restrict their range of choice. Since career decisions are made by both youths and adults, an effective guidance system must aim to serve people of all ages.

A person’s career options are affected not only by his personal attributes, but also, to a significant degree, by the availability of family and community resources which can be devoted to the development of his potential and to the pursuit of his goals.

“Guidance specialists share with most Americans, the belief that a man is largely in control of his own fate. However, guidance has paid relatively little attention to the ways in which the economic and social status of some families restricts the opportunities for education and work available to their children.”