Egypt: The Fundamentals of the Pyramides

Egypt: The Fundementals of the Pyramides

The fundamental motive of the pyramid is the funeral mound. A small upheaval above the natural level of the ground results of itself from the earth displaced by the bulk of the buried body. Our present practice of interment clearly illustrates this. Increased dimensions elevate the mound to an independent monument.

Many nations, some of a high degree of civilization, have contented themselves with such imposing hills of earth over the grave,–tumuli, which, from the manner of their construction, assumed a conical form. Others placed the mound upon a low cylinder, thus better marking its distinction from accidental natural elevations.

The Egyptians and the Mesopotamians rejected the cone entirely, and formed, with plane surfaces upon a square plan, the highly mon- umental pyramid. Peculiar to the former people are the inclined sides which give to the pyramid its absolute geometrical form, as opposed to the terraced structures of Chaldaea.

The sand of the desert ebbed and flowed fifty centuries ago as constantly as in our time, when the sphinx, after being uncovered to its base, has been quickly hidden again to the neck. Rulers, unwilling that their gigantic tombs should be thus submerged, were obliged to secure to them great height, with inclined and unbroken sides, upon which the sand could not lodge.

Things to do in Cesme, Izmir – Turkey

Things to do in Cesme, Izmir – Turkey

Çeşme is a coastal town and the administrative centre of the district of the same name in Turkey’s westernmost end, on a promontory on the tip of the peninsula which also carries the same name and which extends inland to form a whole with the wider Karaburun Peninsula. It is a popular holiday resort and the district center, where two thirds of the district population is concentrated.

Çeşme is located 85 km west of İzmir, the largest metropolitan center in Turkey’s Aegean Region. There is a six-lane highway connecting the two cities (Otoyol 32). Çeşme district has two neighboring districts, Karaburun to the north and Urla to the east, both of which are also part of İzmir Province. The name “Çeşme” means “fountain” and possibly draws reference from the many Ottoman fountains scattered across the city.

Under the Greeks and Romans in Classical antiquity its name was Cysus (Ancient Greek: Κύσος Kysos), possibly a mere locality at the time. Turkish sources always cited the town and the region as Çeşme (or Cheshme) which is originally a Persian word since the first settlement 2 km south of the present-day center (Çeşmeköy) founded by Tzachas and pursued for some time by his brother Yalvaç before an interlude until the 14th century. The name “Çeşme” means “spring, fountain” in Persian and possibly draws reference from the many Ottoman fountains scattered across the city.

A prized location of country houses and secondary residences especially for the well-to-do inhabitants of İzmir for more than a century, Çeşme perked up considerably in recent decades to become one of Turkey’s most prominent centers of international tourism. Many hotels, marinas, clubs, restaurants, boutique hotels, family accommodation possibilities (pansiyon) and other facilities for visitors are found in Çeşme center and in its surrounding towns and villages and the countryside, as well as very popular beaches.

Things to do in Cesme, Izmir – Turkey

Çeşme district has one depending township with own municipal administration, Alaçatı, where tourism is an equally important driving force as the district center area and which offers its own arguments for attracting visitors, as well as four villages: Ildırı on the coast towards the north, which is notable for being the location of ancient Erythrae, and three others which are more in the background, in terms both of their geographical location and renown: Germiyan, Karaköy and Ovacık, where agriculture and livestock breeding still forms the backbone of the economy.

Some andesite, lime and marble is also being quarried in Çeşme area, while the share of industrial activities in the economy remains negligible. In terms of livestock, an ovine breed known as “Sakız koyunu” in Turkish (translatable literally as “Chios Sheep”), more probably a crossbreeding between that island’s sheep and breeds from Anatolia, is considered in Turkey as native to Çeşme region where it yields the highest levels of productivity in terms of their meat, their milk, their fleece and the number of lambs they produce.

Preparations such as jam, ice cream and desserts, and even sauces for fish preparations, based on the distinctively flavored resin of the tree pistachia lentiscus from which it is harvested, are among nationally known culinary specialties of Çeşme. The adjacent Greek island of Chios (sakız in Turkish is the name for both Chios and mastic resin) is the source of mastic resin.

Things to do in Cesme, Izmir – Turkey

Some efforts to produce mastic resin in Çeşme,where ecological conditions are similar, were not continued. A number of efforts are being made to rehabilitate the potential presented by the mastic trees that presently grow in the wilderness, and to increase the number of cultivated trees, especially those planted by secondary-residence owners who grow them as a hobby activity. The fish is also abundant both in variety and quantity along Çeşme district’s coastline.

In relation to tourism, it is common for the resorts along Çeşme district’s 90 km coastline to be called by the name of their beaches or coves or the visitor’s facilities and attractions they offer, as in Şifne (Ilıca), famous both for its thermal baths and beach, and in Çiftlikköy (Çatalazmak), Dalyanköy, Reisdere, Küçükliman, Paşalimanı, Ayayorgi, Kocakarı, Kum, Mavi and Pırlanta beaches; Altunyunus, synonymous with a large hotel located in its cove; and Tursite, by the name of the villas located there. Some of these localities may not be shown on a map of administrative divisions The district area as a whole is one of the spots in Turkey where foreign purchases of real estate are concentrated at the highest levels.

The town of Çeşme lies across a strait facing the Greek island of Chios, which is at a few miles’ distance and there are regular ferry connections between the two centers, as well as larger ferries from and to Italy (Brindisi, Ancona and Bari) used extensively by Turks of Germany returning for their summer holidays.

Population: 27.796 (2007)

Altitude: Sea Level

Airport: Adnan Menderes Airport 90 Km.

Transfer: Taxi, mini bus, bus.

Min/max temperatures in centigrade: Jan 5/12; Peb 4/12; Mar 5/14; Apr 11/19; May 16/24; Jun 20/29; Ju122/32, Aug 22/32; Sep 19/28; Oct 16/24; Nov 11/18; Dec 8/14

City transport: Taxi, mini bus.

Sights and local attractions:Cesmc Castle, Ilica, Boyalik bayl, Dalyan and Sakizli koy, Şifne, Buyuk Liman, Pasha Liman, Ciftlikkoy and iırlanta Beach, Çata1azmak Beach, Ildiri (Erythrai), Alacati, Caravansarail.

Sightseeing Tours and Excursion:

1. Ephesus – Mary’s House

Visit the shrine of Virgin Mary; St. Paul, Temples, Library, Great Theatre, Stadium, Archeological Museum, Isabey Mosque, Basilica St. John, Temple of Diana.

2. Pergamon – Aesdapium

Visit Acropolis, Temple of Athena, Library, Royal Palace, Tempel of Trojan, Great Theatre, Tempel of Dyonysus, Altar of Zeus, Archaeological and Ethnographical Museum, Ruins of Aesclapium

Jerusalem Old City: The Sacred Place For Muslims, Christians And Jews

Jerusalem Old City: The Sacred Place For Muslims, Christians
And Jews

Old Jerusalem is a 0.9 square kilometer (0.35 square mile) walled area within East Jerusalem and one of the most sacred places in the world. Despite its small size, Old Jerusalem is of major importance for Christians, Jews and Muslims. However, you do not have to be Christian, Jew or Muslim to be impressed by this amazing place. If you have at least a little sense for history or spirituality the Old Jerusalem is definitely one of the places you should visit at least once during your lifetime.

Old Jerusalem is surrounded by a 4 kilometer (2.5 miles) long wall and can be accessed through seven of eight gates. Most part of the Old City is accessible by foot only but this should not pose any major problem due to its small size. The area is roughly divided into four quarters – the Muslim Quarter, the Christian Quarter, the Jewish Quarter and the Armenian Quarter.

The Muslim Quarter is the largest and the most populous of all quarters in Old Jerusalem. It is situated in the northeastern section of the Old City, while the Temple Mount Area, also known as Noble Sanctuary is its top attraction. However, if being non-Muslim you will not be allowed to enter the area on Fridays and Muslim religious services though the area also might be closed for visitors entirely, depending on political situation. However, the Dome of the Rock is currently not allowed to be entered by non-Muslims, while the Al-Aqsa Mosque is permanently off-limits for non-Muslim visitors.

The Christian Quarter is situated in the northwestern part of the Old City, while the most famous landmark is the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. The church that built by Roman Emperor Constantine I in the early 4th century is one of the holiest places for Christians and is believed to be build on the site of Jesus’ crucifixion, death and resurrection. In is open daily from 5 AM to 9 PM during summer and from 4 AM to 7 PM in winter.

The Jewish Quarter that lies in the southeastern corner of the Old City is home to the Western Wall also known as “Wailing Wall”, one of the most sacred places in Judaism and a remnant of the wall that surrounded the Jewish Temple.

The Armenian Quarter in southwestern section of the Old Jerusalem is the smallest of all quarters. It is home to the Citadel housing the Tower of David Museum of the History of Jerusalem, St. James Cathedral and Saint Mark’s Syriac Church and Monastery.

Kusadasi, Turkey Sights and local attractions

Kusadasi, Turkey Sights and local attractions

Kuşadası is a resort town on Turkey’s Aegean coast, and the center of the seaside district of the same name within Aydın Province. Kuşadası is 95 km (59 mi) south of İzmir, and 71 km (44 mi) from Aydın. The municipality’s primary industry is tourism.

Kuşadası has a residential population of 64,359, which can rise to over half a million in the summer as a result of the large resort filling with tourists. This also includes the hotel and bar staff, construction workers, and drivers who are required to work in/for the restaurants and other services accommodating these visitors. In addition to tourists from overseas, there is also a significant community of foreigners residing in the area.

Places of Interest

The city walls – There were once three gates; one remains.[16]
Kaleiçi Camii – The mosque built in 1618 for Grand Vizier Öküz Kara Mehmed Pasha.

The Öküz Mehmed Pasha Caravanserai is near the docks. It was built in 1618 as a strong-room for the goods of seamen.

Güvercin Adası (“Pigeon Island” in English) – The peninsula/island at the end of the bay, which has a castle and swimming beaches, including a private beach and cafe with a view back across the bay to the harbour of Kuşadası. Public beaches are located at the back of the peninsula, towards the open sea.

Kirazli – Traditional Turkish village 12 kilometres (7.5 mi) from Kuşadası.

Yılancı Burnu – A second peninsula beyond Güvercin Ada. Possibly the location of the original settlement of Neopolis. Some walls are visible. There are beaches and beach clubs here.

Several aqua-parks with wave-pools and white-water slides are located near the town.

Ladies Beach – Very close to the town center, one of the primary tourist attractions.

Kadıkalesi – Venetian/Byzantine castle, 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) along the Kuşadası-Davutlar road.

Panionium – 25 km (16 mi) south of Kuşadası, situated along the Davutlar-Güzelçamlı road. Once the central meeting place of the Ionian League. The ruins are in poor condition and their authenticity is disputed.

Dilek Peninsula-Büyük Menderes Delta National Park – About 30 kilometres (19 mi) south of the city centre, the national park is adjacent to the town of Güzelçamlı. It has several coves, beaches, canyons, and a sink cave. It is one of the most diverse and protected national parks in Turkey.

Population: 65,764 (2000)

Altitude: Sea Level

Airport: Adnan Menderes Airport 70 Km.

Transfer: Bus, mini bus, taxi.

Min/max temperatures in centigrade: Jan 6/12; Feb 5/12; Mar 6/14; Apr 12/20; May 17/25; Jun 22/32; Ju125/3S; Aug 25/3S; Sep 20/30; Oct 16/25; Nov 12/1S; Dec S/14.

City transport: Bus, Mini bus, taxi.

Sights and local attractions: Ephesus, Milet, Didyma, Priene, Pamukkale, Bodrum, Samos (Greece)

Sightseeing Tours and Excursion:

1. Ephesus – Mary’s House (5 hours – daily)

Visit the shrine of Virgin Mary; St. Paul, Temples, Library, Great Theatre, Stadium, Archeological Museum, Isabey Mosque, Basilica St. John, Temple of Diana.

2. Priene – Milletus – Didyma (5 hours – daily)

Priene – Theatre, Temple of Athena, Altar of Zeus.
Miletus – Theatre, Byzantine Fortress, Mosque.
Didyma – Temple of Apollo.

3. Pamukkale (12 hours)

Hierapolis, Karahayit, Amphitheatre, Thermal Pool.

4. Bodrum (12 hours)

Bafa lake, Bodrum Castle, Boat Tour.

Tourism Office: Liman Cad. Iskele Meydani Kusadasi

Ephesus Izmir Sights and local attractions

Ephesus Izmir Sights and local attractions

Ephesus; ultimately from Hittite Apasa) was an ancient Greek city on the coast of Ionia, three kilometres southwest of present-day Selçuk in İzmir Province, Turkey. It was built in the 10th century BC on the site of the former Arzawan capital by Attic and Ionian Greek colonists. During the Classical Greek era it was one of the twelve cities of the Ionian League. The city flourished after it came under the control of the Roman Republic in 129 BC. According to estimates, Ephesus had a population of 33,600 to 56,000 people in the Roman period, making it the third largest city of Roman Asia Minor after Sardis and Alexandria Troas.

The city was famed for the Temple of Artemis (completed around 550 BC), one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. In 268 AD, the Temple was destroyed or damaged in a raid by the Goths. It may have been rebuilt or repaired but this is uncertain, as its later history is not clear. Emperor Constantine the Great rebuilt much of the city and erected new public baths. Following the Edict of Thessalonica from Emperor Theodosius I, what remained of the temple was destroyed in 401 AD by a mob led by St. John Chrysostom. The town was partially destroyed by an earthquake in 614 AD. The city’s importance as a commercial center declined as the harbor was slowly silted up by the Küçükmenderes River.

Ephesus was one of the seven churches of Asia that are cited in the Book of Revelation. The Gospel of John may have been written here. The city was the site of several 5th century Christian Councils (see Council of Ephesus). It is also the site of a large gladiators’ graveyard. The ruins of Ephesus are a favourite international and local tourist attraction, partly owing to their easy access from Adnan Menderes Airport.

Population: 33.594 (2000)

Altitude: Sea Level

Airport: Adnan Menderes Airport 50Km

Transfer: Bus, mini bus

Average temperature in centigrade: Jan 6/13; Feb 5/10 ; Mar 4/14; Apr 10/19; May 15/ 22; Jun 20/27; Ju120/30; Aug 22/32; Sep 18/27; Oct 15/22; Nov ıo/18; Dec 7/10.

City transport: Taxi , mini bus, car rental

Sights and local attractions: Several archaelogical sights in vicinity of Selcuk such as the shrine of Virgin Mary, Ephesus, Didyma, Miletus, Piriene, Hierapolis

Sightseeing Tours and Excursion:

1. Ephesus – Mary’s House

(5 hours – daily)

Visit the shrine of Virgin Mary; St. Paul, Temples, Library, Great Theatre, Stadium, Archeological Museum, İsabey Mosque, Basilica St. John, Temple of Diana.

2. Priene – Milletus – Didyma

(8 hours – daily)

Priene – Theatre, Temple of Athena, Altar of Zeus.
Miletus – Theatre, Byzantine Fortress, Mosque.
Didyma – Temple of Apollo.

3. Hierapolis

(8 hours, daily)

Theatre, Temple of Apollo, thermal baths, Plutonium, Necropolis, Karahayit

4. Aphrodisias and Nysa

(10 hours, daily)

Theatre, Agora, thermal bath of Hadrian, The Odeion, Sculptor’s workshop, The Bishop’s Balace, temple of Aphrodite, the stadium, the museum

Torism Office: Ataturk Mh. Agora Carsisi, No. 35

Ozdere, Gumuldur, Izmir

Ozdere, Gumuldur, Izmir

Özdere is a small Turkish coastal settlement and resort town in the Menderes district of İzmir Province, along the Aegean Sea coast. It has a permanent population of around 15,000 people, which can rise to nearly 100,000 during the summer[a] as a result of its popularity amongst tourists.

It is located approximately 40 kilometres (25 mi) northwest of the nearby resort town of Kuşadası and 70 kilometres (43 mi) to the south of İzmir, the provincial seat. The town is situated within close proximity to numerous historical sites and is accessible via the Kuşadası-Selçuk-Seferihisar-Urla provincial road.

The area was settled and cultivated long before Turkish administration of the area, which is reflected in the several historical names the town once bore. During the Ottoman period the town was known as Kesri. In the 1960s that the village underwent a considerable increase in density and population and started to be generally referred to by its current name, Özdere. On June 3, 1979, a municipality was established in Menderes district under this name, with the official borders of the town being drawn. It is currently unincorporated as a result of the municipality’s dissolution in 2008.

With a temperate climate and favorable location, the town is a local center of tourism, which its economy is primarily and steadfastly centered upon. The customs and culture revolve around the behaviors of local business owners, the attire of residents, and its cuisine. Although several pharmacies and doctors practice in the area, as of 2015 the town no longer has an independent municipal health department (Turkish: sağlık ocağı), and such affairs are operated and administered by the district. Numerous schools are located within or near the town and its vicinity.

The ease of access to the town makes the administration of several shuttle buses and share taxis by the province and from central İzmir to Özdere and its beaches possible. Dolmuş and coach buses also operate from the İzmir bus station and from other nearby towns such as Kuşadası and Seferihisar. The town can be reached from the İzmir Adnan Menderes International Airport, where rental car services and taxis can be used to the reach the town center, its neighborhoods, and nearby areas. Ferry and yacht services can be found at several harbors within and near town.

Altitude: Sea Level

Airport: Adnan Menderes Airport 45Km

Transfer: Bus, mini bus

Average teMperature in centigrade: Jan 6/13; Feb 5110 ; Mar 4/14; Apr 10/19; May 15/ 22; Jun 20/27; JuI20/30; Aug 22/32; Sep 18/27; Oct 15/22; Nov 10/18; Dec 7/10.

City transport: Taxi , mini bus, car rental

Sightseeing Tours and Excursion:

1. Ephesus – Mary’s House

(5 hours – daily) Visit the shrine of Virgin Mary; St. Paul, Temples, Library, Great Theatre, Stadium, Archealogical Museum, ısabey Mosque, Basilica St. John, Temple of Diana.

2. Priene – Milletus – Didyma

Priene – Theatre, Temple of Athena, Altar of Zeus.
Miletus – Theatre, Byzantine Fortress, Mosque.
Didyma – Temple of Apollo.

3. Hierapolis

Theatre, Temple of Apollo, thermal baths, Plutonium, Necropolis, Karahayit

4. Aphrodisias and Nysa

 (10 hours, daily) Theatre, Agora, thermal bath of Hadrian, The Odeian, Sculptor’ s workshop, The Bishop’ s Balace, temple of Aphrodite, the stadium, the museum

5. Seferihisar, Cesme